New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

A&P Ch. 2

by: Brittany Mayeda

A&P Ch. 2 BIOL 2457

Brittany Mayeda
GPA 4.0
Timothy L Henry

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes will be on our upcoming exam
Timothy L Henry
Class Notes
anatomy and physiology
25 ?





Popular in Biology

This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Mayeda on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2457 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Timothy L Henry in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY I in Biology at University of Texas at Arlington.


Reviews for A&P Ch. 2


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/04/16
Chapter 2 Anatomy and Physiology Notes in Class 0 Chemical Elements 0 All form of matter are composed of chemical elements which are substances that cannot be split into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means 0 Chemical symbols elements are given letter abbreviations 0 Trace elements are present in tiny amounts beryllium 39 I 7 oxygen uor1ne 4 a 9 12 011 18998 H h fu h r1 I magnesium 12 33 As 50 942 3951 996 7 T261 rubidium I v 1h nlurn rhodium 39i 239 antimonyquot tellurii39lrr Rb g N 2 7 393 Rh vquot i 2 sh Te 85468 12360 quot 1010 10291 I2 rhenum iridium V t39 39 pplonlum 7 5 7 V 34 lr 39 Po V 2 I I I 39 quot I In meltne rlu rn lanthanum 59 Iu 39 europlurn 7 39Ierblurr dysp roslurn 57 63 65 EB 39 quot 39 39 39 quot 15393 15493 actl39nl39um 39 quot be gum 39 quot men39deleirlum inobellum 10239 Lant39hanide Sell93 Ac39ti n id 9 se ri as The Periodic Table 0 Organisms are made up of mainly four different types of elements C H O N P 0 Atomic Number of protons and electrons Periods get biggeradding shells hold valence electrons which hold bonds 1St shell2 Columns or groupssame number of valence electrons on outer shell Example Iodine5th shell lacking one electron C Z H O P K lN S Mn Ca Fe Mg NaCl main elements of the human body 5 x 1023 how many atoms there are in the body Atomic number the number of protons in the nucleus Mass number the sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus 0000 0 000 o 0 Structure of Atoms 0 Units of matter of all chemical elements are called atoms An element is a quantity of matter composed of atoms of the same type Atoms contain 0 Nucleus protons p amp neutrons n 0 O Electrons e surround the nucleus as a cloud electron shells are designated regions of the cloud Electrons moving at the speed of light negative charged 0 Atomic Mass atomic weight of an element is the average mass of all of its naturally occurring isotopes and re ects the relative abundance of isotopes with different mass numbers 0 00000 0 5 3 U OOOOO Measured as a dalton atomic mass unit Masses of subatomic particles Neutron 1008 daltons Proton 1007 daltons Electron has mass of 00005 dalton Atomic mass atomic weight is close to the mass number of the element s most abundant isotope The mass of a single atom is slightly less than the sum of the masses of its neutrons protons and electrons because some mass less than1 was lost when the atom s components came together to form an atom an atom that gave up or gained an electron Written with its chemical symbol and or H Cationpositive Anionnegative Elements want to have a full outer shell Free Radicalelectrically charged atom or group of atoms with an unpaired electron in its outermost shell they are unstable and highly reactive but can become stable by either giving up an electron or by taking an electron from another molecule Antioxidants are substances that inactivate oxygenderived free radicals ANTIOXIDHNT Antioxidant Behavior FREE RADICAL Molecule Formed when atoms share electrons O O 0 Written as a molecular formula showing the number of atoms of each element H20 Chemical bonds the atoms of a molecule are held together by forces of attraction The likelihood that an atom will form a chemical bond with another atom depends on the number of electrons in its outermost shel valence shell O O O Ionic Bonds when an atom loses or gains a valence electron ions are formed Positively and negatively charged ions are attracted to one another Cations positively charged ions have given up one or more electrons they are electron donors Anions negatively charged ions have picked up one or more electrons that another atom has lost they are electron acceptors Example sodium chloride NaCl Covalent Bonds formed by the atoms of molecules sharing one two or three pairs of their valence electrons O 0 Most common and are the strongest chemical bonds in the body Single double or triple covalent bonds are formed by sharing one two or three pairs of electrons respectively Nonpolar covalent bond atoms share the electrons equally one atom does not attract the shared electrons more strongly than the other atom Polar covalent bond formed by the unequal sharing of electrons between atoms Example water molecules Hvdroqen Bonds are weak intermolecular bonds servings a links between molecules result from attraction of oppositely charged parts of molecules rather than from sharing of electrons O O 0 Approximately 5 as strong as covalent bonds Useful in establishing links between molecules or between distant parts of a very large molecule Form large 3D molecules which are often held together by a large number of hydrogen bonds Example hydrogen bond between a hydrogen of one water molecule and an oxygen of another water molecule Chemical reactions occur when new bonds form andor old bonds are broken 0 O Metabolism quotthe sum of all the chemical reactions in the bodyquot Law of conservation of enerqv the total mass of reactants equals the total mass of the products Energycapacity to do work Kinetic energy the energy associated with matter in motion Potential energy energy stored by matter due to its position Not moving but ability to do work Exergonic reaction bonds are being broken and they have more energy than the one formed so that extra energy is released usually as heat occurs during catabolism of food molecules Endergonic reaction bonds form and thus requires that energy be added usually from a molecule called ATP to form a bond Example bonding amino acid molecules together to form proteins Activation energy energy required to break chemical bonds in the reactant molecules so a reaction can start Enzymes lower activation energy 0 Factors that cause a collision and a chemical reaction Concentration of reactantssubstrates Temperature highermoecues more active Catalysts chemical compounds that speed up chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy needed for a reaction to occur like enzymes 0 Does not alter the difference in potential energy between the reactants and products It only lowers the amount of energy needed to get the reaction started Helps to properly orient the colliding particles of matter so that a reaction can occur at a lower collision speed 0 The catalyst itself is unchanged at the end of the reaction it is often reused many times 0 Types of Chemical Reactions Synthesis reactions Anabolism A B gt AB Decomposition reactions Catabolism AB gt A B Exchange reactions ips things AB CD gt AD CB Reversible reactions AC lt gt A C 0 Inorganic compounds usually not alive usually lack carbon and are structurally simple molecules Example water 0 Organic compounds always contain carbon usually contain hydrogen and always have covalent bonds Usually are large molecules All living things are made up of carbon chains complex carbons usually have oxygens and hydrogens attached to them Water o Is the most important and abundant inorganic compound in all living systems 0 Its most important property is polarity the uneven sharing of valence electrons o Enables reactants to collide to form products 0 Negative and positive charges help create hydrogen bonds Which these hydrogen bonds help give water its special properties 0 Universal solvent In a solution the solvent dissolves the solute Hydrophilic substances contain polar covalent bonds and dissolve in water while substances which contain nonpolar covalent bonds are hydrophobic fats The polarity of water and its bent shape allow it to interact with several neighboring ions or molecules Water s role as a solvent makes it essential for health and survival Universal solutesalt or protein o Moderation of Temperature High heat capacity it can absorb or release a relatively large amount of heat with only a modest change in its own temperature 0 This property is due to the large number of hydrogen ions in water 0 Heat of vaporization is also high amount of heat needed to change from liquid to gas 0 Evaporation of water from the skin removes large amounts of heat 0 Can absorb a lot of heat before it steams or lose a lot of heat before it freezes o Cohesion water molecules sticking together surface tension and adhesion 0 Expansion upon freezing Mixture a combination of elements or compounds that are physically blended together but are not bound by chemical bonds 0 Solution a substance called the solvent dissolves another substance called the solute Usually there is more solvent than solute in a solution Like water and salt 0 Colloid differs from a solution mainly on the basis of the size of its particles with the particles in the colloid being large enough to scatter light variations of particles like jello cannot really separate 0 Suspension the suspended material may mix with the liquid or suspending medium for some time but it will eventually settle out Example sand and water 0 Concentration The concentration of a molecule is a way of stating the amount of that molecule in solution Percent gives the relative mass of a solute found in a given volume of solution 0 Dehydration synthesisproducebuild molecules water molecule is taken out of each bond 0 Hydrolysisbreak down molecules water is added Concept of pH 0 pH scale runs from O to 14 concentration of H in molesliter 0 pH of 7 is neutral distilled water concentration of OH39 and H are equaD pH below 7 is acidic H gt OH39 0 pH above 7 is alkaline H lt OH39 0 pH is a logarithmic scale Example a change of two or three pH units pH of 1 contains 10x10100 more H than pH of 3 pH of 8 contains 10x10x101000 more H than pH of 11 O Neutral Ease A L A 2 3 4 5 E T B 9 Lemon l 111 112 13 i14 l l I I l l Juice Cabbage Water Lye Hydrochloric Milk of Acid Milk Magnesua o Buffer Svstems maintaining pH and important for homeostatic balance The pH values of different parts of the body are maintained fairly constant by buffer systems which usually consist of a weak acid and a weak base Convert strong acids or bases into weak acids or bases 0 Example carbonic acidbicarbonate buffer system Stabilizes the blood 0 Strong acids add weak baseweak acid and salt 0 Strong base add weak acidweak base and salt 0 Carbon 0 Many functional groups can attach to carbon skeleton o Esters amino carboxyl phosphate groups 0 Very large molecules are called macromolecules or polymers if all the monomer subunits are similar 0 lsomers the same molecular formulas but different structures glucose amp fructose are both C5H1206 but arrangement is different Carbohydrates provide most of the energy needed for life and include sugars starches glycogen and cellulose 0 Some carbohydrates are converted to other substances which are used to build structures and to generate ATP Other carbohydrates function as food reserves 0 Divided into three major groups based on their size monosaccharides disaccharides and polysaccharides bonded together by glycosidic anages Monosaccharide simple sugars deoxyribose ribose glucose fructose galactose Disaccharide combining 2 monosaccharides by dehydration synthesis releases a water molecule 0 sucrose glucose amp fructose maltose glucose amp glucose lactose glucose amp galactose Polysaccharide are the largest carbohydrates and may contain hundreds of monosaccharides Glycogen for humans which is stored in the liver and muscle cells O Lipids contain carbon hydrogen and oxygen but unlike carbohydrates they do not have a 21 ratio of hydrogen to oxygen may have few polar covalent bonds but are usually are hydrophobic are mostly insoluble in polar solvents such as water and combine with proteins lipoproteins for transport in blood 0 Unsaturatedhave double bonds liquid at room temp o Saturatedsolid at room temp animals produce this coconut produces this too only plant that does 0 Triglycerides the most plentiful lipids in the body and provide protection insulation and energy both immediate and stored At room temperature may be either solid fats or liquid oils Provide more than twice as much energy per gram as either carbohydrates or proteins Virtually unlimited Excess dietary carbohydrates proteins fats and oils will be deposited in adipose tissue as triglycerides Ester linkage t 9ftwwtrwtwthwva H C QeC E Sl E ij I39 S E EE 9E2 Ef E E H aCidl H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H Saturated Pttttttttttttttttth H c o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o H l Stearic acid C7Pl35000H I HHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH 73139Saturated o H H H H H H H H II I I I I I I II H O C Cto I Aquot H HHHHHHH CKO if hi t W a z 0 I weY 0 A 2639 I 0 ly C c 9quot j OK I 3 54 IO xx 639 OleIC ach C17H33COOH 7 quot Monounsaturated Triglyceride fat rnolecule Have one unsaturated fatty acids Produced by ester linkages o Phospholipids important membrane components are amphipathic with both polar and nonpolar regions have a polar head and a phosphate group PO4393 amp glycerol molecule 2 nonpolar fatty acid tails Forms hydrogen bonds with water Interact only with lipids o Steroids four rings of carbon atoms Sex hormones Bile salts break down fats we eat Cortisol stress hormone and some vitamins Cholesterol with cholesterol serving as an important component of cell membranes and as starting material for synthesizing other steroids there are different types of cholesterol Proteins contain a Carboxyl and amino group hydrogen and a R group connected by peptide bonds between carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid constructed from combinations of 20 amino acids o Dipeptides formed from 2 amino acids joined by a covalent bond called a peptide bond Polypeptide chains formed from 10 to 2000 amino acids 0 Levels of structural organization Primary chain of amino acids Secondary taking them and folding them either into a pleated sheet or helical hydrogen bonds causes this shape Tertiary sulfur bonds make it fold into itself Quaternary taking tertiary bonds and sticking them together 0 Denaturation of a protein caused by a hostile environment causes loss of its characteristic shape and function 0 Enzymes catalysts in living cells highly speci c in terms of the substrate with which they react and speed up chemical reactions by increasing frequency of collisions lowering activation energy and properly orienting colliding molecules 0 o Are subject to a variety of cellular controls Nucleic Acids huge organic molecules that contain carbon hydrogen oxygen nitrogen and phosphorus the basic units of nucleic acids are nucleotides composed of a nitrogenous base a pentose sugar and a phosphate group 0 DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid forms the genetic code inside each cell and thereby regulates most of the activities that take place in our cells throughout a lifetime able to replicate itself bases include A T G C sugardeoxyribose double stranded 0 RNA Ribonucleic acid relays instructions from the genes in the cell s nucleus to guide each cell s assembly of amino acids into proteins by the ribosomes able to replicate itself bases include A U G C sugarribose single stranded Messenger RNA mRNA Ribosomal RNA rRNA Transfer RNA tRNA o Bases Purines two rings Pure SilverAG bases are AG Pyrimidines one ring bases are CT Adenosine Triphosbhate ATP temporary molecular storage of energy as it is being transferred from exergonic catabolic reactions to cellular activities 0 how we store our energy either by catabolism or anabolism 0 Formation and usage Hydrolysis of ATP removal of terminal phosphate group by enzyme ATPase Releases energy 0 Leaves ADP adenosine diphosphate Synthesis of ATP taking glucose and phosphorylating it 0 Enzyme ATP synthase catalyzes the addition of the terminal phosphate group to ADP Energy from 1 glucose molecule is used during both anaerobic and aerobic respiration to create 36 to 38 molecules of ATP One glucose moecue under anaerobic condition can produce 2 ATP Aerobic conditions3236 ATP in the mitochondria


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.