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Fingerprints, Chapter 16

by: Paola Venturini

Fingerprints, Chapter 16 CHS 3501

Paola Venturini
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About this Document

Fingerprints notes, chapter 16.
Forensic Science
Jeannette Perr
Class Notes
Forensic Science, Fingerprints




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Paola Venturini on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHS 3501 at Florida International University taught by Jeannette Perr in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 88 views. For similar materials see Forensic Science in Chemistry at Florida International University.

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Date Created: 02/04/16
Fingerprints = 3 10 print cards: Twice to be sure they match. Blue = Background checks  Red = Criminal History  Each print has an independent classification What started all this interest? – Wanted a way to identify people that was foolproof 3 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES 3 GENERAL PATTERNS Bertillon = multiple ways of measurements, his system failed (identical twins) Herschel = fingerprints as a form of signature Faulds = fingerprints do not change throughout lifetime Galton = 3 General Patterns (Loop, Arch, Whorl) there are different types of each pattern.  Arches = no deltas  Loops = 1 deltas  Whorls = 2 deltas ^ Delta = triangle Fingerprint computers (classification) o Spanish speaking countries use other system = Vucetich System o HENRY SYSTEM = English speaking countries Disadvantages: somebody might have checked it out, misfiles. Gave over a thousand classification types 3 FUNDAMENTALS  No 2 fingerprints are the same  They do not change through lifetime  They have general ridge patterns that prevent them to be systematically classified. IF YOU FIND ONE MARK THAT IS DIFFERENT IT IS A DIFFERENT PERSON Everything has to match up and be consistent Shoeprint comparison = same shoe. Bodies don’t burn that well = Humans = 70% water. Skin = oils that leave impressions behind and DNA. 3 Ridge characteristics = friction to help you pick things up. THE BOOK IS WRONG  Ridge endings/beginnings = it is longer than it is tall (short ridge)  Bifurcations = Splits off (lake = 2 bifurcations, hook, double bifurcation, trifurcation, opposed bifurcations, ridge crossing, enclosure)  Dots = ridge that is as tall as it is wide. (island) LAW When you die you get skin slippage AIFIS (Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems)  NOT GUARANTEED TO MATCH, you have to pull the actual print.  Challenge = Used to be different suppliers have slightly different systems You are never going to find high quality prints in crime scene. Visible = you can easily see (blood, paint, grease, ink) Plastic = prints left behind that leave an impression (putty, wax, soap, dust) Latent = hidden (typically in crime scenes), they NEED to be developed Surface type  Porous o Iodine = will attach to the fingerprint (elemental [can give you cancer], purple solid crystal, immediate from solid to gas [sublimation], used to make meth). o Ninhydrin = ATTACHED TO AMINO ACYD RESIDUES LEFT BEHIND IN FINGERPRINT, you can speed up the reaction of the print with an IRON o Silver nitrin  Non porous = o UV Light, o superglue (Cyanoacrylate [scientific name]) adheres to any residue left behind, very difficult to destroy, VERY USEFUL, o Fingerprint powder. REFLECTIVE UV LIGHT (exam) = visualized fingerprints (what is the common method for visualized fingerprints?) Fingerprint powders Depending on the surface you determine which color to use Fingerprint brush = TWIRL instead of pressing. Preservation of Developed Prints (1) Once print has been visualized, a photograph should be taken before any further attempts at preservation. -- Adapters can generate 1:1 scale images 2) If object can be transported, lay clear tape over print to preserve it. 3) More commonly, “lift” the print with lifting tape. -- Then place lifting tape on card with good background contrast SAME SCALE 1:1 ALWAYS TAKE PHOTOGRAPH BEFORE YOU LIFT PRINT AND TAKE ANOTHER ONE AFTER IF IT CAN’T BE TRANSPORTED CUT IT If it can put tape and send it Digital Imaging and Enhancement of Prints Problem: Developed latent prints from a crime scene are typically imperfect. Solution: Photographic fingerprint images are scanned/ digitized and once stored can be enhanced electronically for better visualization. Potential risk: The process of digital manipulation might improperly alter image resulting in faulty analysis Pixels make the image = WHEN PHOTOSHOP IS ALLOWED FOURIER TRANSFORM = mathematical equation used to eliminate the background. There’s a Genetic disorder = WILL NOT HAVE A FINGERPRINT PATTERN


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