Biol 102 Unit One Notes
Biol 102 Unit One Notes BIOL-102-01-4162: BIOL 102-01: INTRO BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS - S-Spring 2016
U of L
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BIOL-102-01-4162: BIOL 102-01: INTRO BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS - S-Spring 2016
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BIOL-102-01-4162: BIOL 102-01: INTRO BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS - S-Spring 2016
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caitlin Notetaker on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL-102-01-4162: BIOL 102-01: INTRO BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS - S-Spring 2016 at University of Louisville taught by Dr. Linda Fuselier in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views.
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Date Created: 02/04/16
January 12, 2016 Intro to Science In science, which of the following is most like a fact? o A) Hypothesis o B) Theories o C) Falsifiable hypothesis o D) Results of an experiment o E) There are no facts in science Falsifiable example: “all green apples are sour” o Possible to get a negative answer; you may find a sweet one o Not falsifiable- you answer with philosophy, religion, etc. Conclusions in science are tentative Paradigm shifts (Kuhn, 1962) o Homunculus egg/sperm o Geocentrism Heliocentrism Tentative theories include the atomic theory (subatomic particle) o This theory has changed drastically, which is why it is tentative Science: process and knowledge Process of science (many scientific methods) o Descriptive/observational o Hypothesis-based o Combinations of both Descriptive Science o Limited by what we can actually observe o Anatomy is based on descriptive science- very subject to change 1543 Andreas Vesalius published De Humani Corporis Fabrica, a very different depiction of what the human body actually looks like (not theories, but what it actually did). He finally opened up and dissected dead bodies. Proved Galen (church authority) completely wrong. Hypothesis-based Science o Observations Question Hypothesis Prediction Test (experiment or additional observation) and test either supports hypothesis or does not o Red-billed oxpecker and ox: mutualism? o What is a symbiotic relationship? A) When one animal benefits from another animal B) Any organisms “living together” C) One organism is harmed and the other benefits D) A relationship between two animals in which both benefit o They may not necessarily benefit, but neither are harmed o Oxpeckers don’t really do anything for the ticks o Oxen with oxpeckers on them have more open wounds o Less earwax in oxen exposed to oxpeckers o This is parasitism because the oxpeckers keep the wounds open and drink the oxen blood, and eat the earwax (which introduces bacteria etc. to the oxen’s ears) o Hypothesis testing: controlled experiments Experimental group: oxen with students shooing away oxpeckers Control group: oxen with nothing changed Why use a control? This gives you a basis to compare your results to o In the oxpecker/ox study, which was the control group? A) Oxen with no oxpeckers B) Oxen with no ticks C) Oxpeckers with no oxen D) Oxen with oxpeckers o What was the experimental variable? A) Ticks B) Oxpeckers C) Oxen D) Treatment number o Why did the researchers run the experiment three times? A) To increase confidence in the results B) One is the control group C) There were not enough oxen for one big experiment D) All experiments have this structure Evidence, Statistics o Compare factors: experimental vs control o How do you know if they REALLY are different; not just difference by chance o Error bars! Standard deviation, confidence limits, etc. 95% confidence change that the “true population” falls into this range o Overlap of error bars- not overlapping bars usually means the two groups are significantly (not by chance) different o Low variation in response: more likely to see significant difference o High variation: less likely significant = possible by chance o Mean or Average? Science is a social enterprise o Not solely objective (done by people) o Everybody brings biases into an experiment when designing the experiment o Not an arbitrary activity January 14, 2016 Antibiotics and Vaccines Cell structure chapter 2 Acquired Immunity is something you have to “develop” after you’re born o B Cells: produce receptors. These are produced in bone marrow Make antibodies (chemicals that mark cells for destruction) Kill bacteria and toxins Antigens = foreign Antibodies bind to the antigen Memory cells basically They clone themselves A lot of b-cells are produced that are specific to the antigen (these cells produce antibodies) Memory B cells stay in your body for future infections o T Cells” Specific to invaders. These are produced in the thymus gland. lymph system Attack antigens and infected cells Body cells have specific proteins on the surface which T cells recognize They recognize tissue that belongs to you, and tissue that does not (organ transplants) Autoimmune diseases Attack body cells Multiple sclerosis Cytotoxic T cells - Produce toxic chemicals that help immobilize and kill pathogens MRSA: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus o Resistant to antibiotics, penicillin, methicillin, amoxicillin o Life threatening, blood infections, pneumonia, surgical site infections o In 2005, approximately 19,000 deaths in hospitals annually B-lactams: antibiotics that kill bacteria o Inactive enzyme used to make component of cell walls o Resistant bacteria carry a gene called mecA that makes a different enzyme that the drugs cannot effect January 19, 2016 Antibiotics, Vaccines, Natural Selection You have developed an antibiotic that inhibits a bacterial enzyme critical for the formation of the cell wall. However, after only a short time, the bacteria become resistant to the antibiotic, and it’s no longer effective. Which best explains what happened? o A) Over time, your antibiotic selected for bacteria with a gene that codes for a different enzyme that can also build cell walls o B) The bacteria learned to avoid taking up the antibiotic in their surroundings o C) The immune system of bacteria recognized the antibiotic as foreign and quickly removed any antibiotic before it could accumulate to toxic levels o D) Through the use of plasmids, bacteria communicated with other bacteria that a noxious chemical was present in the environment Tuberculosis o Bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis o Two billion people carry TB o New infections occur at a rate of one per second o Kill roughly two million deaths per year o Kills by creating tubercles inside of your lung o Bacteria gets into lung tissue and builds a nodule around the tissue (tissue can’t fill up with air anymore) and you produce a lot of mucus that clogs lungs o 20% of cases are antibiotic resistant o In the US, 1/3 of people with active TB die o Antibiotic resistant TB survive and reproduce (already in the population) Artificial Selection (fast, humans choose traits) o Human chooses animals to reproduce Animals that are deemed “strong” or good at their job Natural Selection (thousands of years, environment chooses traits) o 1. Individuals within populations vary All populations Variation is caused by differences among genes (mutations) o 2. Variation is heritable Variation can be passed to offspring Genetic o 3. More offspring will be produced will ultimately survive Environment selects Fitness: relative to survival and reproduction of one variant Frequency of traits o In a single population of water snakes on an island in Lake Erie, some snakes have 19 black bands on their back, some have none, and most have between 5-10 bands. Originally, how did this color variation arise in the population? A) Through natural selection B) The bands help snakes survive better on rocks C) Through random mutations D) There is no way to know o Adaptation: Trait that increases individual fitness o Individuals with adaptations for a particular environment are more likely to survive and reproduce Which of the following populations is evolution by natural selection most likely to impact coat color: o A) Rock pocket mouse population in which all individuals have the same genetic variant for coat color. There are dark and light colored rocks for habitat. There are aerial predators (hawks) that regularly hunt for and eat rock pocket mice. o B) Rock pocket mouse population with dark and light rocks available for habitat. There are aerial predators that hunt and eat mice. Some individuals have one and some another genetic variant for mouse coat color. o C) A population of rock pocket mice in which some individuals have darker and some lighter coats. There are no aerial predators that hunt and eat the mice. Most of the rocks in the are where the mice live are very dark colored. Variation o Must have genetic, heritable variation in population for natural selection to occur o Variation- spread from the mean o Example: Average hair length of women in a class photo (all short). Not varied. HIV-AIDS and Natural Selection o Evolves so rapidly that it is a moving target o AIDS: acquired immune deficiency syndrome o HIV: human immunodeficiency viruses Attack helper T cells No immune defense Retrovirus – RNA Uses RNA as genetic material o Fast reproduction o Very poor copies with many mistakes, mutations, and variation Natural selection: lots of variation, high selection pressure (from drugs), evolution of resistance o Combination or cocktail drug therapy is used to treat HIV because: A) The greater number of drugs administered, the fewer the number of changes required for the virus to develop resistance B) In general, cocktails are always better for the patient when fighting a virus C) Extra drugs are artificially selecting for virus particles with slower reproduction rates D) HIV evolves resistance to drugs quickly because it has high reproduction and mutation rates o AIDS virus gets inside your body cell and uses its machinery to reproduce quickly- tiny o LIFE CYCLE: HIV virion (single virus particle because not alive) with RNA for genetic information, as well as proteins (integrase, protease). Receptors on the surface of particle that allow it to attach to your cells coreceptors Some people are immune because they have a mutant coreceptor on surface of their cells Virus injects RNA into your body cell Virus RNA has to be converted into HIV DNA so it can communicate with your DNA Splices itself into your genome and takes over cell Genome makes new virus proteins (thousands of virus particles are produced in each one cell it infects) January 21, 2016 HIV/AIDS Combination or cocktail drug therapy is used to treat HIV because: o A) The greater the number of drugs administered, the fewer the number of changes required for the virus to develop resistance o B) In general, cocktails are always better for the patient when fighting a virus o C) Extra drugs are artificially selecting for virus particles with slower reproductive rates o D) HIV evolves resistance to drugs quickly because it has high reproduction and mutation rates Which statement about viruses is correct? o A) Viruses are composed of cells and are considered living organisms. o B) Viruses have no genome. o C) Viruses can make their own enzymes. o D) The genes of a virus code for proteins necessary to make more viruses Where did HIV come from? o Chimpanzees, monkeys, gorillas (SIV- simian immunodeficiency virus) o Use a cladogram or a phylogenetic tree o Based on genetic similarities o More similar the genetic material, the more closely related o DNA or RNA as genetic code HIV was transmitted from chimps to humans three times In 2009 a new strain of HIV was transmitted from a gorilla
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