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BIOEE 1780 1/29-2/3 Notes

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by: Carly Siege

BIOEE 1780 1/29-2/3 Notes BIOEE1780: Evolutionary Biology

Carly Siege
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Notes from the first week of BIOEE 1780 Lectures
Biology: Evolution and Biodiversity
Class Notes




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"If you want to pass this class, use these notes. Period. I for sure will!"
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carly Siege on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOEE1780: Evolutionary Biology at Cornell University taught by Dr.Sarvary in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Biology: Evolution and Biodiversity in Biological Sciences at Cornell University.

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Date Created: 02/04/16
The Nature of Science and the Scientific Process 1/29/16 Hypothesis: A tentative, proposed answer to your questions. What do you think MIGHT be  going on?       ­ informed guess based on current state of knowledge                 ­ science can never PROVE anything—> can only create theories that data                                                                                        supports  Experiment/Observation: an experiment is often a manipulation of a system, designed to test a  hypothesis        ­ some experiments are observational (common in evolutionary biology and other subjects  where it’s not                     possible to manipulate the variables.  Facts: actual, observes data from your experiment; measurable and objectively real.    Theory: a synthesis of data that explains/describes a phenomenon        ­ closest thing science has to truth  Important Historical Figures in Evolutionary Biology 2/1/16 ­ Evolutionary change over time was a revolutionary concept when it was proposed (came first)  ­ the mechanism of natural selection is a separate insight into how evolutionary change happens.  Carl Linnaeus (Mid 1700’s) ­ believed in divine creation  ­ recognized similarities among organisms   ­ came up with with taxonomy from kingdom to species called Linnaean Classification of Life        ­ putting organisms in groups in terms of similarity (not relatedness)   Jean­Baptiste Lamarck (Mid 1700’s) ­ organisms evolve from simple to complex       ­ accredited change over time  ­ individual organisms adapt to their environment and pass along those acquired adaptations to  their offspring (most famous for this)        ­generational transmission of acquired adaptations   ­ thought life has many origins and come into existence spontaneously                   Testing Lamarck’s Theo                         ­ August Weisman tested this by cutting tails off of 20 generations of mice                               ­ mice kept growing their tails back proving that this theory is not correct   Charles Lyell (1800’s) ­ British layer and geologist   ­ reasoned that a common, continuous set of processes shapes the earth  ­ one of the first to propose that the earth is over 300 million years old (not1000’s like some  believed)   ­ Darwin was influenced by Lyell’s Principles of Geology   Charles Darwin ­ dropped out of college  ­Voyage of the Beagle: 5 years surveying the world observing plants, animals, fossils, reading…       ­ during this time he came up with the Galapagos Finches                 ­ convergent evolution                      ­ when unrelated organisms have similar traits due to similar environments   ­ organisms change over time with a history of ancestry and descent  ­ natural selection is a mechanism of evolutionary change   Darwin’s Evidence for Common Descent    1. Fossils: the remains or impression of a prehistoric organism preserved in rock                          ­ shows origin and extinction of species   ◦ Law of Succession: living species in an area are frequently closely related to fossils in that area ◦ Endemic Biotas: organisms found in limited regions along with close relatives (especially                                        islands) ◦ Transitional Forms: many fossils are intermediate between older taxa and living species 2. Stratigraphy: (study of rock layers) ◦ from this scientists realized that they could date layers from different areas based on the fossils  they contained, ◦ layers of rocker appear with the youngest layers on top and the oldest on the bottom ◦ and that organisms share homologous frats due to descent from a common ancestor        3. Homology  ◦ Vestigial Structures: homologous structures that have lost their original function in the  organism  hip structures in whales and coccyx in humans   Homologous VS Analogous Trains ­ analogous traits are similar but not derived from a common ancestor        ­ IE butterfly wing and bird wing  Thomas Malthus (late 1700’s)   ­ food supply increases linearly, population exponentially  ­ population quickly outstrips resources  ­ competition for resources ensues       ­ Malthusian Catastrophe    Alfred Russel Wallace (1800’s)   ­ independently derived the theory of natural selections  Dawin Eclipsed Wallace in History Because...  ­ darwin was already famous as an expert naturalist  Phylogenetics Tree Thinking 1 2/3/16 Phylogeny: evolutionary history of an organism   Phylogenetic Trees  2. “Tree thinking” is our ability to conceptualist genetic relationships and make inferences  1 proximity at the tips is less important than the path through the tree that connects  them  3. branches 4. tops 5. nodes 6. clades 7. monophyletic groups


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