BIOEE 1780 1/29-2/3 Notes
BIOEE 1780 1/29-2/3 Notes BIOEE1780: Evolutionary Biology
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carly Siege on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOEE1780: Evolutionary Biology at Cornell University taught by Dr.Sarvary in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Biology: Evolution and Biodiversity in Biological Sciences at Cornell University.
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Date Created: 02/04/16
The Nature of Science and the Scientific Process 1/29/16 Hypothesis: A tentative, proposed answer to your questions. What do you think MIGHT be going on? informed guess based on current state of knowledge science can never PROVE anything—> can only create theories that data supports Experiment/Observation: an experiment is often a manipulation of a system, designed to test a hypothesis some experiments are observational (common in evolutionary biology and other subjects where it’s not possible to manipulate the variables. Facts: actual, observes data from your experiment; measurable and objectively real. Theory: a synthesis of data that explains/describes a phenomenon closest thing science has to truth Important Historical Figures in Evolutionary Biology 2/1/16 Evolutionary change over time was a revolutionary concept when it was proposed (came first) the mechanism of natural selection is a separate insight into how evolutionary change happens. Carl Linnaeus (Mid 1700’s) believed in divine creation recognized similarities among organisms came up with with taxonomy from kingdom to species called Linnaean Classification of Life putting organisms in groups in terms of similarity (not relatedness) JeanBaptiste Lamarck (Mid 1700’s) organisms evolve from simple to complex accredited change over time individual organisms adapt to their environment and pass along those acquired adaptations to their offspring (most famous for this) generational transmission of acquired adaptations thought life has many origins and come into existence spontaneously Testing Lamarck’s Theo August Weisman tested this by cutting tails off of 20 generations of mice mice kept growing their tails back proving that this theory is not correct Charles Lyell (1800’s) British layer and geologist reasoned that a common, continuous set of processes shapes the earth one of the first to propose that the earth is over 300 million years old (not1000’s like some believed) Darwin was influenced by Lyell’s Principles of Geology Charles Darwin dropped out of college Voyage of the Beagle: 5 years surveying the world observing plants, animals, fossils, reading… during this time he came up with the Galapagos Finches convergent evolution when unrelated organisms have similar traits due to similar environments organisms change over time with a history of ancestry and descent natural selection is a mechanism of evolutionary change Darwin’s Evidence for Common Descent 1. Fossils: the remains or impression of a prehistoric organism preserved in rock shows origin and extinction of species ◦ Law of Succession: living species in an area are frequently closely related to fossils in that area ◦ Endemic Biotas: organisms found in limited regions along with close relatives (especially islands) ◦ Transitional Forms: many fossils are intermediate between older taxa and living species 2. Stratigraphy: (study of rock layers) ◦ from this scientists realized that they could date layers from different areas based on the fossils they contained, ◦ layers of rocker appear with the youngest layers on top and the oldest on the bottom ◦ and that organisms share homologous frats due to descent from a common ancestor 3. Homology ◦ Vestigial Structures: homologous structures that have lost their original function in the organism hip structures in whales and coccyx in humans Homologous VS Analogous Trains analogous traits are similar but not derived from a common ancestor IE butterfly wing and bird wing Thomas Malthus (late 1700’s) food supply increases linearly, population exponentially population quickly outstrips resources competition for resources ensues Malthusian Catastrophe Alfred Russel Wallace (1800’s) independently derived the theory of natural selections Dawin Eclipsed Wallace in History Because... darwin was already famous as an expert naturalist Phylogenetics Tree Thinking 1 2/3/16 Phylogeny: evolutionary history of an organism Phylogenetic Trees 2. “Tree thinking” is our ability to conceptualist genetic relationships and make inferences 1 proximity at the tips is less important than the path through the tree that connects them 3. branches 4. tops 5. nodes 6. clades 7. monophyletic groups