Age of Expansion Notes
Age of Expansion Notes hist 1031
Popular in World Civilizations Since 1500
Popular in History
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by DrPhilGood on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to hist 1031 at East Carolina University taught by Michael B Gross in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see World Civilizations Since 1500 in History at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 02/04/16
Age of Expansion The word history comes from the word historia which means “to ask questions.” Modern Contemporaneous (contemporary) at the same time Primary sources firsthand (eyewitness) account (contemporaneous with what he/she is recording) Secondary sources account written or produced after what its material is based on Global Expansion A) Motives for Expansion Portugal and Spain (and the Dutch) were the first to go on the voyages out to different areas of the world. Why did the go out? Spread religion (Catholicism) (a) Believed that it was God’s work to send out explorers and convert people because the people couldn’t be saved without God. (Fanatic Zealotry) Gold Spices (pepper, cinnamon, nutmeg, ginger, cloves, mace) (a) Acquired wealth from getting the spices because they were hard to come by (as dear as pepper) (b) Diets for most Europeans were bland (c) Spice trade over land was blocked by the Muslims Glory (a) Explorers wanted their names to live forever B) Means for Exploration Changing of ships Used to use Galleys which were powered by slaves with oars (a) Was inefficient because the slaves needed to be fed. Switched to caravels which used sails as a new means of propulsion (a) The space that was formerly used for slaves was made into space for cargo (b) Instead of ramming, they fought on the seas using cannons New means for navigation (a) Magnetic compass (b) Used to Astrolabe to determine their direction and position by measuring it with the stars and Sun. (c) New and more accurate maps (i) Latitude was used to measure by degrees above or below the equator (ii) Longitude was not discovered until later (1) Measured by using clocks and distance east or west of Greenwich, England (2) Made clocks out of wood to prevent problems associated with metal clocks C) Portuguese Voyages Aimed at going around Africa to get to India to trade for spices Prince Henry (the Navigator) Taught students to become navigators to explore Gold Coast Bartolomeo Diaz 1487 Tooks ships to the very tip of the bottom of Africa (Cape of Good Hope) (a) Forced to turn around because of a mutiny (i) Wasn’t enough food or fresh water Vasco da Gama 149798 First to make it past Africa and to India India Explorers went to India to get spices D) Spanish Conquest Conquistadors Tried to get to India by going West. Columbus Landed in the New World, but thought it was the outer islands of India Cortez, Aztecs Spain realized there wasn’t spices in the New World, but large quantities of gold and silver Over a matter of a few years Cortez conquered the Aztecs (a) Aztecs thought they were gods (i) Wore different clothing (ii) Came from the water on “floating cities” (iii) Rode on horses which hadn’t been introduced to the New World yet. (b) Allied themselves with neighboring tribes (i) Aztecs would take people captive and rip out their hearts to feed to their god (c) Introduced new technologies (i) Steel for swords and armor (ii) Gunpowder (d) Diseases killed 90% of the native population (25 million to 1 million) from 1500 1600 (i) Smallpox and the Black Plague Pizarro, Incas Ecomienda System Spanish turned the Native Americans into slave labor Butchered and tortured to send a message to other natives. Slave trade The Spanish killed so many Native Americans that they dramatically reduced their slave labor force. Started the TransAtlantic Slave Trade 12 million Africans were sent to the New World Packed cargo holds with Africans so tightly that up to 25% would die in transit Justified a slave trade based on race (a) Said they were a lover form of human (b) Believed they needed the discipline from the slave owners E) Documents Captain of a slave ship He is looking for a way to make his slave trade more lucrative (a) Maps aren’t accurate Got slaves from leaders of rival tribes. (a) French made an agreement with the Kilwa tribe that the French would protect them from the Arabs and Portuguese (who want to attack them and make them slaves) in return for the French getting slaves, land, 200 Kilwa men, a fort that formerly belonged to the Portuguese, a port for trading, Alabuda Akwiano
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