Topic 2 Tools of GY
Topic 2 Tools of GY GY 102
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Conner Jones on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GY 102 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Mary Pitts in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Earth System Processes in Geography at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/04/16
Geography Topic 2 – Tools of GY Tools of Geography outline Maps o Map scales o Coordinate systems o Projections Coordinated universal time Remote sensing o Direct/indirect acquisition of data GIS (geographic information system) o Storage, retrieval, and presentation of spatial data Maps generalized view representation of features on the earth’s surface scale drawing, relating horizontal ground distances with map distances major types: planimetric (typical road maps) and topographic (physical relief) key concepts o elevation- height above sea level o depth- below sea level o topographic relief- difference in elevation of one feature to another o slope-degrees from horizontal o gradient- 480m of drop over 1000m = 0.48 January 28, 2016 types of scales: o written scale- one inch equals four miles o representative fraction- 1:250,000 or 1/250,000 o graphic scale- distance on map to distance on land, most common types of maps: o small scale- large representative fraction, world map, less detail o large scale- small representative fraction, cover small areas, more detail Coordinate systems Latitude and Longitude latitude o how far north/south of equator you are o measured in degrees, minutes, and seconds o angular distance north/south of equator measured from center of earth o parallels longitude o measures position east//west of an imaginary line called Prime Meridian o angular distance measured east/west of a point on earth’s surface from center of earth o meridians great circles- made by plane passing through center of sphere small circle- made by plane not through center of sphere Map projections (no perfect projection) preserve correct shapes preserve correct areas Mercator projection- most common projection in schools, over sizes Greenland (1/8 size of South America) o Cylindrical projection o Shape & projection preserved o straight line represents a true direction o Used for navigation o Distances and areas greatly distorted near poles Worldwide system o Standard time zones o Rotation 360 degrees 24 hours o 15 degrees an hour o 1884 international meridian conference o Greenwich meant time Remote sensing Information required from a distance without contact with the subject o Satellites o Airplanes o Ocean floor sensors February 2, 2016 Types of remote sensing o Active- direct beam at surface and analyze energy reflected (radar) o Passive- record energy radiated from a surface, visible and infer- red (photos, satellite images) Geographic Information Systems (GIS)- different information represented as data “layers” Spatial data analysis Computer based, data processing tool Gathers, manipulates and analyzes geographic information Single data plane, composite overlay Diagnostic tool Uses- fire/police, modeling/monitoring, site location/delivery systems, transportation/communication, military, research/administration Global positioning system (GPS)- Determines location using satellite signals
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