Survey of American History Week 4
Survey of American History Week 4 1903
Arkansas Tech University
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Justin A. Whitney
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Wisenbaker on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1903 at Arkansas Tech University taught by Dr. Pearson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Survey of American History in History at Arkansas Tech University.
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Date Created: 02/04/16
The awakening started in 1741 with Whitfield. He went on speaking tour on personal experience. The way he preached was new to American and the world. They were use to a preacher reading something out of a book for about three hours. Jonathan Edwards was an ordained minister. He heard of Whitefield and wanted to give religion an American spin on it. He based his sermons on “sinners in the hands of an angry God”. He was a hell, fire, and brimstone type of preacher. This made people move away from Calvinism (a pre-destined existence). They also believed that there was a limited number of places in Heaven. The kings at that time believed that they were appointed because God favored them. People started to believe that they were the ones who choose their own destiny. This was a dangerous idea because the poor stopped listing to the King. People listened to the King because they believed he was appointed by God. Even more dangerous was it did not just pertain to the white community but also the blacks. This gave them the idea that they could judge their owners. It allowed people to question the status queue. People began to divide into “Old” light and “New” light. Old lights were people who stayed with their old churches and rules. New light were people who were part of new religious orders (Baptist and Methodist). They appealed to lower economic classes. The problem was all colonies had official religion except Pennsylvania and the people paid taxes to the church. When the new churches started, people still had to pay taxes to the state churches; this made a lot of people angry and resentful. The Enlightenment began about a generation earlier. The period that modern science was born, the period where logic, reasoning, and observation of nature replaced superstition. It began with Isaac Newton. Newton using a telescope watched the stars and planets, developed a new form of math which he published in his book Principia. He used this math to conform that the sun was the center of the universe and not the earth. He also used this math to prove gravity. He demonstrated the interworking of the Earth. His book moved people away from superstition. He was trying to prove the working of God. Newton was looking for Natural Laws, they explained how the world worked. Natural Laws were perfect, constant, logical, and rational. His laws impacted people to study everything. Voltaire studied society and the works of society. He brought religion into society. Voltaire came up with the Watch Maker Theory. This theory was that God was a watch maker and once he was done making the world he put it on a shelf and walked away. This lead to Deists, they were like agnostic. Benjamin Franklin was a deists, he thought that Christ was just a man. They put their faith in the form of Natural Laws (Science). Benjamin Franklin was born in the 1800’s, he was a printer who had a thirst for knowledge. He spent every dime on books. One of the book he had was Isaac Newtons’ Principia, which was written in Latin. Because of this he became fluent in Latin so that he could read it. He had a very scientific mind. He established the first lending library in Philadelphia. He was self educated. He retired in his 40’s. Franklin then studied everything, proved electricity, studied thermodynamics, invented the Franklin Stove, studied optics (bending light (Bifocals)), invented the lightning rod. He was an ideal American Enlightenment. He invented practical applications. He is the embodiment of it. The European Enlightenment there liked just knowing things. In the America they wanted to understand and better the country in a practical way. Thomas Jefferson was a product of the Enlightenment, he liked to study societies. He was the best philosopher that studied societies. Most of the founding Fathers were Diests and products of the Enlightenment. John Locke published “Two Treaties of Government”. He developed Radical Whig Ideology ( a belief system that was growing in the Whig) Locke said that you couldn’t trust government because it was ran by men who wanted to increase their wealth and power. Also you have to be on alert of the government overstepping its powers. The only way to ensure that the government stays in check is a written constitution. To explain what powers an office does and does not have to keep them honest. America took hold of this type of ideology. For about the first 150 years that the colonies existed, they were benign neglected. This meant that they colonies developed on their own without the help of the mother country. There wasn’t involvement in anything including taxation. Most of the colonist in the mid 1700’s were granted “Rights of Englishmen” meaning that they had all the rights that Europeans had. They believed that it was their God- given right to own private property. Another scared right was the right to have a represented government. They did not want a democracy , the wanted a representative government who would represent their interest to the king. They also believe they had they right to not be taxed without their consent. “No taxation without representation”. In order to have a say in government, you had to own taxable property. They wanted someone just like them who had their best interest and somebody they knew. There were individual governed bodies. In Virginia it was called “House of Burgesses” and in Massachusetts it was called “Qeneral Court”. The French and Indian War was from 1754-1763. The reason for this was because the French came down from Canada down to the Mississippi River Valley and pushed east of the Appellations Mountains. At this time the British were pushing west of the Appellations. They fought four World Wars against each other. After the third war they kept the Status Quo Anti Bellum, which translates to how it was before the war. The French and Indian War was different. The French built Fort Duquesne which was built on the boarders of the English territory. The English saw this as was to claim the Northwest Territory. The people of Virginia believed that this was their territory. The governor of Virginia sent a young militia officer, George Washington, to politely tell them that they were trespassing. Washington saw that he was heavily outnumbered. So he went back home, later he returned with more troops (300-400 men). He built Fort Defiance. He knew that he was out numbered 3 to 1. But one day there was a French patrol out and Washington and his men captured them. The French soldiers and their Indian allies laid siege to Fort Defiance. They were offered a honorable surrender. For the first two years of the war, Great Britain ignored the colonies. But the French were winning. A British general named Braddock was offered the help of two Indian tribes, Shawnees and Delaware, in exchange for spoils of war. When Braddock said no he still had to march through their two tribes, where he was ambushed. Of the 1400 men who went in only 400 made it out alive. During this war the French march on the British colonies. For a while it looked like the French would win the war. In 1756 the British finally declared war on the French. The British wanted to drive the French out of America all together. The British had the strongest navy in the world. They attack their ships and barricaded their port. This cut off supply and people, also New France was very dependent on the French. They imported everything (food, soldiers, and clothing). This is how the French paid the Indians allies. When they couldn’t pay the Indians, they left to go back to provide for their families. The British also used their Navy to bring thousands of soldiers to the new world. In 1759 they captured Fort Duquesne, they captured Quebec, and killed Marquis de Montecazm. The Treaty of Paris in 1763 ended the World War. The French had to surrender all claims in North America. New France became Canada. They gave the Louisiana Territory to Spain. France gave the British everything south of the Great Lakes, north of the Spanish territory, East of the Mississippi, and west of the Appellations. A land bounty was a payment given to a militia soldier in the form of free land in the northwest territory. In order to win the war, the British went into massive dept. The cost of their empire went up with all the new land. Taxes are the governments paycheck, in order to pay for the war taxes were passed. Three years later, a war with the Indians broke out. The British treaded the Indians like costumers, where as the French treated them like family. They wanted to go back to how it use to be when they traded with the French. Neoline was a Delaware prophet, who told the Indians if they drank this poison that they would be cleansed from the white people. Pontiac was from the Ottawa tribe, and he was a war leader. He wanted to help Neolines idea. In 1763, they attacked every British fort and drove them out except for three: Fort Pitt, Fort Detroit, and Fort Macano. This was known as the Pontiac Rebellion. King George III issued the Proclamation of 1763. It banned all British settlement west of the Appellations Mountains. He removed the reason for the conflict. By doing this he angered the colonists. This set the spark for the American Revolution. They saw this as a violation of their right to private property.
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