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Psychology of Sexuality (PSYC 2110) Week 3

by: Morgan Smith

Psychology of Sexuality (PSYC 2110) Week 3 PSYC 2110

Marketplace > University of Connecticut > Psychlogy > PSYC 2110 > Psychology of Sexuality PSYC 2110 Week 3
Morgan Smith
GPA 3.9

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About this Document

Gender Roles and Identity and Female and Male Sexual Anatomy
Psychology of Human Sexuality
Seth Kalichman
Class Notes
PSYC 2110, Psychology of Sexuality, Seth Kalichman, Male Anatomy, Female Anatomy, gender roles, Gender Identity
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan Smith on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2110 at University of Connecticut taught by Seth Kalichman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Human Sexuality in Psychlogy at University of Connecticut.


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Date Created: 02/04/16
Psychology of Sexuality 2/3 2/4/16 11:12 AM Gender roles • Normative expectations of males and females o Vary from culture to culture o Latitude around gender coded behaviors § Women have more latitude in gender coded behavior than males § Men and boys have been ridiculed more for being feminine § Blurry lines around gender roles • Theories of Gender role Development o Psychodynamic Perspective § Freudian perspective § During the first 5 years of life our identity is formed included expected roles we would play as men and women § Unconsciousness role: edipal and electra complex § Not accepted for gender role development o Social Learning Theory § Albert Bendura § Pick up gender roles from people around us § First experience of gender coded behavior comes from our experiences and observations of our family § We continue to observe people outside of our family ú Life –long process of evolving gender-coded experiences § Biological influences- not all environment and observation o Cognitive-Developmental theory § Similar to social learning theory but takes into account a broader range of experiences and INTERPRETATION of events o Gender Schema Theory § Doesn’t emphasize how our gender behaviors evolve over our lifetime § Has more to do with our internal interpretations at every point in our lives § Cognitive structures we develop of how we think we are expected to ask ú Social pressures ú What is being shaped is our attitudes and beliefs and they get translated into schema ú All our behaviors are scripted by our cognitive structures o Multifactorial Theories § A little bit of everything § What we observe is important/parents important/schema important/biological influences important § Interactive and how they interact • Gender roles: behavior characteristic of males and females • Gender identity: internal sense of ourselves as being either male or female o Usually matches body type but not always o If it matches your body type: cis gender o If it does not match your body type: trans gender § Gender dysphoria: sense of self as a man or women can be disturbing to you- not being happy with yourself, don’t have a clear sense of who you are § Used to be considered a psych disorder ú NOW gender dysphoria is a psych disorder o Trans gender and gender dysphoric can go through sex reassignment surgery § Think that they will be cis gender and happy at the end of the surgery ú Not always the case- gender dysphoria can happen after they undergo surgery § Step 1: living as a member of the desired gender while receiving treatment ú After psych evaluation- see if dysphoria is related to transgenderism ú Reversible body therapies • Electrolysis for hair removal • Dress like a man • Synthetic hormones ú Counseling and legal advice § Step 2: Sex reassignment surgery ú Not reversible ú Male to female • Remove testicles • Creating a vagina o Reshape penile tissue to clitoris o Reshape scrotum to labia • Breast implants ú Female to male • Remove breasts, uterus, ovaries • The clitoris is surgically reshaped to a penis o Smaller penis because less tissue • Labia to scrotum • Prosthetic testicles • Falloplasty o Creating of an artificial penis in conjunction with clitoral tissue o Sometimes the penis is not functional for erection o Penile implants help erectile functioning Female Sexual Anatomy • What do we call female genitals? o What we call female genitals can be illuminating about how society treats women • External Structures: The Vulva o Mons Pubis (pubic mound) § Fleshy mound of tissue at the very top of the female genital structures § Covered with pubic hair § Sensitive to sexual stimulation o Clitoris § Develops from undifferentiated glands § Very sensitive ú Made up of erectile tissue § Protected by the clitoral hood § Clitoral shaft (covered by prepuce) § Externally see glands clitoris and clitoral hood § Internally ú Crus clitoris- come down around vaginal opening. 3in long ú Made of corpus cavernosum- rigid dense connective tissue • Glands of clitoris meet the CC • Hollow chambers that engorge with blood during sexual response • Erectile tissue o Opening of Urethra (urinary meatus) o Labia minora (minor lips) § Develop from labial scrotal swelling § Inner folds § Meet at the clitoris to form the clitoral hood § No hair § Highly innervated and swell during sexual response § Enclose the vestibial o Labia majora (major lips) § Develop from labial scrotal swelling § Outer folds § Two folds of spongy fleshy tissue § Extent from mons pubis down to perineaum (space between bottom of vagina and opening of anus) § May have pubic hair § Highly innervated- a lot of touch sensation o Opening of vagina (introitus) o Opening of Bartholin’s gland § Secrete vaginal fluids during sexual response o Skene’s gland • The vagina o Muscular tube of smooth muscle o Lined with mucus membranes o Walls of the vagina are collapsed and lay on each other until something inserted into it o Four inches deep o Outer third is most sensitive o Inner part of vagina is least sensitive o 2 sets of muscles § circular muscles that wrap around ú sphincter vaganae • round muscle • not a well-defined sphincter ú levitator anae • smooth muscles • have some voluntary control but not much • can be contracted and relaxed § Pubic coxegyal muscles ú Controlled § Smooth muscle of walls ú No voluntary control o Hymen § Thin membrane of skin at the opening of the vagina § Different forms of hymen (type and how much opening) ú Cribiform: tissue not solid and porous ú Annular: large opening ú Septate: opening with a strand of skin that runs down ú Imperforate: mostly closed § Cultural baggage: ú Some cultures believe hymen is sign of virginity • If in tact- virgin • Not true because of different forms and can tear with different activities o G-spot § Ernst Graffenburg discovered the G-spot § Located 1/3 way into vagina in the vaginal wall § May swell during sexual response ú Highly innervated ú Connected to some of the accessory glands • Skene’s gland in particular • Inside vagina o Remnant of the hymen o Cervix § Cervical opening- where sperm swims up to uterus to fertilize eggs § Where uterus lining is shed during menstrual cycle o Speculum o Cervical fluid o Vaginal rugae o External cervical os • Uterus ( Müllerian tube system developed) o Hollow structure size of a pare § 3 in by 3in in women not pregnant o 3 layers of thick muscular walls § outer: perimetrium ú thick coat that keeps uterus together § middle: myometrium ú thick smooth muscle § inner lining: endometrium ú highly vascular ú sheds itself during menstrual cycle ú endometriosis: inflammation of inner walls o accommodates embryo during gestation § flexible muscular structure § also called the womb § provides nurturing environment for the fetus o parts § body of the uterus § top part: fundus § os: opening of uterus to the cervix o common cite of disease § uterine cancer ú vulnerable to cancer because a lot of cell growth in the endometrium § fibroid tumors ú non-cancerous § endometriosis o remove uterus by hysterectomy • 2 ovaries o seated in lower abdomen o ovarian ligament- connects ovary to the uterus o size of almonds o undifferentiated gonads into ovaries o produce gametes: eggs/oocytes § during ovulation: ovum released and pop of from uterus § hormonally controlled process to produce ovum o make estrogen and progesterone o process of making an egg § oocyte § make a follicle § then corpus luteum ú meiosis § produce ovulating egg and Barr bodies § occurs between ovary and fallopian tube • fallopian tube o come off of the fundus of uterus o hollow open tubes o space between F tube and ovary o finger-like projections around the ovary: fimbriae § have cilia § create a current to move egg from ovary into the fallopian tube o if there are sperm in the fallopian tube the egg can become fertilized • internal and other structures o urethra: tube through which urine passes o urethral opening: right below clit above opening of vagina o perineum: area between genitals and anus o pelvic floor: pelvic girdle with muscles that support all these structures o anus • secondary sex characteristics o breasts § provide milk for nourishing infants § primarily composed of fatty tissue that supports the mammary glands ú mammary glands: 15-25 lobes of mammary glands in each breast ú release milks through the ducts to common opening: nipple § nipple surrounded by areola ú areola stimulation produces milk ú sensitive to cold and engorges with blood during temperature changes ú variability of how sensitive the areola is o breast cancer § fueled by estrogens ú pre-menopausal cancer is faster growing because producing more hormones § obesity is a risk-factor for breast cancer ú fat tissues produce estrogen § screening ú mammography- to screen for cancer ú self-examination • visual and manual examination § treatment ú mastectomy: removing breasts • female sexual hormones o hypothalamus o pituitary gland gonadotropins (impact on gonads) § GTH stimulates the release of estrogens from ovaries § release follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) ú stimulates development of follicle for ovulation in the ovary § luteinizing hormone (LH) ú triggers rupturing of follicle and release of the egg o ovaries § estrogen: stimulate maturation of reproductive organs, menstruation and pregnancy § progesterone: helps to maintain the uterine lining and the vascularization of the endometrium o gonadotropin releasing hormones • the menstrual cycle: four stages o pre-ovulatory preparation (follicular phase) o ovulation § LH § Corpus luteum o Luteal secretion § Corpus luteum secretes progesterone and more estrogen o Menstruation § If ovum is not fertilized uterine cellular material, fluids, and a small amount of blood passes through the vagina ú Dysmenorrhea: pain during menstruation o if it is fertilized § implants in uterine wall and ceases shedding of uterine wall § sometimes in fallopian tube: tubular pregnancy • birth control o interrupts ovulation o can help PMS • menopause o cessation of menstruation o middle life ( 45-55) very variable o not an event, it is a process § slowing down of menstrual cycle before cessation o some have physical symptoms § hormone replacement therapy to replace estrogen to reduce symptoms § hot-flashes because of estrogen’s role in vascular system ú dilation of blood vessels- influx of blood- hot sensation o culture connotations § good because no period § bad because lack of femininity Male Sexual Anatomy • External o Penis § Glans- rounded head of penis ú Frenulum- attaches glands to shaft of penis ú Coronal ridge of head ú Foreskin homologous to clitoral hood § Has corpus cavernosum and corpus spongeosum ú Engorged with blood during sexual response § Urethra- urinary tube ú Runs through corpus spongeosum § No muscles in the penis only at BASE ú Come off of pelvic girdle o Scrotum § External pouch of skin that holds testes outside the abdomen § Testicles ú Male gonads from undifferentiated gonads ú Covered by tunica- thick and tough membrane that holds in seminiferous tubules tightly compacted together ú Seminiferous tubules- make sperm • Exit testicle through epididymis tube § Epididymis ú Warehouse for sperm ú During sexual response, it contracts and squeezes sperm into vas deferens ú Can become infected by STDs • Chlamydia- epididymitis o Perineum Space between scrotum and anus • Internal (Wolfian System) o Seminal vesicles o Prostate glands o Bulbourethral Gland/ Cowper’s gland § All 3 produce semen- fluid that carriers sperm § Cowper coats urethra to make it a friendly environment for sperm ( basic Cowper’s fluid counteracts acidic urine for sperm to be in neutral/basic environment) ú Pre-cum is from the Cowper’s fluid ú Pre-cum DOES HAVE SPERM!!!!!! But not a lot of it o Ejaculatory duct § Joins with vas deferens which then meets with urethra o Vas deferens § Tube that connects to the epididymis which is attached to the testes § Joins up with urethra (common exit) o Semen § Seminal vesicle fluid/ Cowper’s gland fluid • Accessory Glands o Homologous to clitoral glands o Seminal fluid § Nurturing for the sperm’s high metabolism o Seminal vesicles § Small 2 inches § Behind the bladder § Open into ejaculatory ducts- join to vas deferens ú Where sperm enters into seminal fluid o Prostate glands § Behind bladder § Produces seminal fluid § Provides viscous texture of the semen and basic fluid o Cowper’s glands § Coats urethra for sperm § Bulbourethral gland • Erection o When blood is flowing into erectile tissue faster than it is flowing out o Erectile response can happen without any stimulation o When blood flows into CC and CS tissue, pollsters stop blood from flowing OUT of penis as fast • Circumcision o Culturally determined o Controversial § Disfiguration § Hygienic value- less concern about hygiene ú Circumcision reduces HIV infection by 50% • Sperm o Produced in the Testes § Seminiferous tubules have cells that undergo meiosis to produce sperm ú Interstitial cells- stimulated by interstitial cell stimulating hormone and FSH o Sex cells o Parts § Head § Middle piece ú High metabolism ú Powers the movement of the tail § Tail o Carried by semen into F tube and fertilize an egg • Penis facts! o Erect: 5.1 inches in length and 4.9 inches circumference o Flaccid: 3.5 inches in length o No correlation to penis size and anything else! o Normal distribution of penis size § 65% fall between 4 and 6 inches erect o testicular cancer § most common cancer in men aged 15-35 years § early detection and age affect lethality ú more common in young than old men ú more lethal in young men § easily detected early • Male Hormones and “Andropause” o Adrenal glands produce androgens o Hypothalamus and pituitary- LH o LH goes to testes o Testosterone from testicles and adrenal glands go to prostate • Male breast cancer o Rare but it happens 2/4/16 11:12 AM 2/4/16 11:12 AM


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