Psychopathology Week #1 Notes
Psychopathology Week #1 Notes 20732
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PSYC 101 03
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kenedy Ramos on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 20732 at Gonzaga University taught by Dr. Fernandez in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see Psychopathology in Psychlogy at Gonzaga University.
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Date Created: 02/04/16
Psychopathology Notes: Trauma and OCD Week 1 OCD Obsessive Compulsive Disorders are unreasonable thoughts and fears that lead you to perform repetitive behaviors. DSM Criteria state that in order to be diagnosed with OCD one must have the presence of obsessions, compulsions, or both. Obsessions or Compulsions must cause some form of distress or impairment. Obsessions are the recurrent thoughts or urges which cause anxiety or distress, while compulsions are the behaviors or acts that are a response in order to ease anxiety or distress in the mind of the person. The earliest forms of obsessions and compulsions were seen in religion as melancholy (struggles with God). th During the 19 century OCD became seen as a form of partial insanity Freud developed the theory of the unconscious mind in relation to these behaviors There are biological, environmental, psychological, and psychoanalytic causes of OCD, however, no exact cause has been identified and we still look at a combination of factors. There are a number of symptoms related to OCD including, intrusive thoughts, constant checking, fears of contamination, and hoarding. The main forms of treatment for OCD are psychological, social, and biological methods. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Individual/Group/Family Sessions Exposure and ritual prevention (ERP) where rituals are actively avoided and exposure to fears of the patient is gradually introduced. SSRI’s (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) or Antidepressants help Trichotillomania Trichotillomania is described as the repeated urges to putt or twist at ones hair until it breaks off, the patient is unable to stop this behavior even when their hair becomes thin. According to DSM-5 criteria, the constant hair pulling cannot be attributed or better explained by another medical condition. It also cases distress or impairment in functioning, especially social and occupational functioning. Hair pulling was first recoded by Hippocrates The term Trichotillomania was coined in the 18 century by Happopeau François Henri Biological causes of trichotillomania are associated with an abnormal amount of serotonin and lenticimate. Other causes relate to the genetics, environment and comorbidity. Also associated with abnormal brain metabolisms (which is also associated with Parkinson’s disease) Some of the symptoms of Trichotillomania include, uneven hair appearance, tension before hair pulling, self-injury, bare patches or overall loss of hair, and feelings of sadness or depression, anxiety and poor self-image. Diagnosing trichotillomania includes examining the skin, hair, and scalp to rule out other causes. The ratio of female to males with the disease is 10:1 Primary treatment methods of trichotillomania include habit reversal training, (taught to be more aware of the repeated behaviors before the hair pulling and avoid them gradually), CBT, SSRI’s and participation in support groups. Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) Reactive Attachment Disorder is described as a failure of a child to bond with their primary or secondary caretaker due to emotional trauma. DSM-5 notes that this failure to bond must be present for at least 12 months, the behavior must be before the child is 5 years old, and he/she cannot meet the criteria for autism. Child must also be at least 9 months old Disease was first noted by Rene Spitz in the 1940’s RAD is caused by the environment around the children, as well as the lack of caregivers. Psychologically, the child is reacting to the trauma There are 3 main symptoms associated with RAD which psychologists look for, poor hygienic condition, bewildered, unfocused and under stimulated appearance, and little response to interpersonal changes. There is no thrive or will to interact with others in multiple environments (school, home, foster home, adoption center etc.) Other symptoms include a difficult time telling between right & wrong, aggressive behavior, poor emotional regulation, and difficulty developing attachments to people other than their caregivers No coping mechanisms Treatment of RAD must involve both the children and parents/caregivers. The two main goals of the treatment are to help ensure the child has a safe and stable living condition, and to develop positive interactions with parents and caregivers. Early intervention is best, includes Group/Family/Play Therapies There are a series of controversial treatments for RAD involving coercing or forcing attachments which may cause harm to the child Example, holding where you break down the resistance to attachment which can be damaging physical and mentally to the child Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder is a mental health disorder caused by witnessing an astounding event in one’s lifetime. DSM-5 criteria states that an individual experiences reoccurring memories or dreams of the traumatic experience, avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma, negative affect of mood and cognition following the trauma, and the symptoms cannot be due to substance abuse. PTSD and Acute Stress Disorder differ when it comes to the duration of the disorder. ASD symptoms normally last no longer than one month. PTSD is commonly associated with populations of war veterans PTSD is influenced by biological factors such as increased family history of anxiety or depression, personality factors including temperament, and stress and hormone levels. CBT treatment comes in two forms: exposure therapy or cognitive therapy Other forms of treatment for PTSD include medication in the form of SSRI’s and Group/Family therapy.
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