End of Chapter 3 (2-4-16)
End of Chapter 3 (2-4-16) PSYCH 3240
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lucy Stevens on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 3240 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Claudio Cantalupo in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see PSYCH 3240 in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 02/04/16
End of Chapter 3 (2-4-16) PSYCH 3240 3. Occipital Lobe: processes visual stimulations a. Primary Visual Cortex (V1) : back part where you find the neurons that receive visual input from the retina i. Processes simple features (orientation) ii. Topographical organization of visual space iii. If our brain stopped visual processing before the Primary Visual Cortex, you wouldn’t see the same as normal. It would be a chaotic arrangement of edges. You would see no objects b. Secondary Visual Cortex surrounds the Primary Visual Cor tex and is numbered V2, V3, V4, etc. 4. Temporal Lobe: a. Auditory Cortex: first set of neurons that receive hearing information from the ears. Located at the top part of the temporal lobe b. Wernicke’s Area: more involved in the comprehensive aspects of speech. i. Language comprehension ii. Lateralized to the left hemisphere iii. Lesions in this area caused Wernicke’s Aphasia 1. Impaired word comprehension 2. Unimpaired word production c. Inferior Temporal Cortex: main lower part of the temporal lobe i. Visual identification of cer tain objects th There is a 5 lobe that you can’t see from the outside of the brain. Will come back to it when we talked about the sense of taste. This is all forebrain: Dif ferent lobes of the hemisphere make up the forebrain. Other Forebrain Structures: a) Cerebral Hemispheres b) Corpus Callosum: large band of myelinated axons a. Large cluster of myelinated axons (white matter) that connect analogous regions on the left hemisphere to the same regions on the right hemisphere. b. This is the main highway of commun ication between the two hemispheres. c. Women typically have a larger corpus callosum than males. c) Thalamus: sensory relation station that relays incoming sensory information to the cortex a. Specific parts of the thalamus are used for different senses (ex. Smell) d) Hypothalamus: Sits under the thalamus and is the hub for fundamental drives a. Specific parts coordinate emotional and motivational functions (sex, eating, emotion) b. Controls the pituitary gland (master gland of the body) which then controls the rest of the endocrine system (hormones) c. Axons of neurons connect the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland *Brain starts out as a hollow tube with fluid inside. As the different parts of the brain develop, the cavity inside gets twisted into different chambers called ventricles. Ventricles: brain cavities that contain cerebrospinal fluid and carries materials to the CNS a) 4 total ventricles. 2 lateral ventricles, and 2 other ventricles. b) Technically just cavities in the brain with fluid Midbrain: relatively small area compared to the other two areas a) Tectum (dorsal side): b) Superior Colliculus: vision (eye movement). When neurons are active here, you see nothing at all. Controls eye movements. c) Inferior Colliculus: hearing and location of sounds d) Tegmentum (ventral side): controls movement a. Substania Nigra: Dopamine-producing neurons. Tend to die out because they are overactive. Related with Parkinson’s Disease b. Ventral Tegmental Area: plays the part in the rewarding effects of drugs, food, sex Hindbrain: a) Pons (bridge): sensory neurons pass through on the way to the thalamus. a. Motor neurons pass through between the cortex and cerebellum b. Part of the Reticular Formation (sleep and arousal) b) Cerebellum: involved in motor coordination and balance, cognitive function, motor learning c) Medulla: involved in life-sustaining functions like heart activity and breathing. Lesions in this area are usually fatal very quickly. Spinal Chord: cable of neurons a) carries signals from the brain to muscles and glands b) carries sensory info from the periphery to the brain c) hub for reflect arcs which are neural pathways that produce reflex acts
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