CL 113 Week 1 Day 1
CL 113 Week 1 Day 1 CL 113LEC
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Palermo on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CL 113LEC at University at Buffalo taught by Woodard, R D in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 480 views. For similar materials see Myth & Religion Anc World in Classical Studies at University at Buffalo.
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Date Created: 02/04/16
Lecture 1 01/27/2016 ▯ Proto-Indo-Europeans Lived between the 5 and 3 millennial B.C. Existed in time and space They go hand in hand Gimbutas proposed that their homeland was located in the Pontic Steppe Located between Caspian sea and black sea and north of modern Ukraine and Russia From their homeland they spread across Europe and deep into asia Spoke a language called proto-indo-european Every place they settled in Europe/Asia the language they brought with them changed in slightly different ways Indo European linguistic family Within this there are at least 10 sub families: Hellenic, Anatolian, indo-Iranian, Balto-Slavic, Armenian, Albanian, Tocharian, Germanic, Celtic, Italic ▯ ▯ Germanic: can be divided into 3 different linguistic families-East, North, West ▯ East Germanic: is no longer spoken; extinct ex: gothic ▯ West Germanic: ex: English, German, Dutch, Frisian (spoken in north Netherlands and northern Germany, most closely related to English) North Germanic: Swedish etc ▯ ▯ Celtic: Irish, Welsh Q celtic languages: Irish- kept labiovelars constantants of PIE languages P celtic languages: welsh – transformed labiovelars into p sounds ▯ ▯ Labiovelars: constantants doing something with lips and moving tongue in the direction of the soft part of the roof of the mouth- producing two sounds simultaneously ▯ ▯ Italic: Latin, Oscan, Umbrian Sabellian: subcategory of italic; evolved and the velar component is lost; same with p celtic Latino-Faliscan: subcategory; preserve those PIE labiovelars ▯ ▯ Hellenic: Attic dialect , Ionic dialect, Tsakonian (modern greek dialect)- comes from Spartans dialect Mycenaean Greek- earliest greek dialect 1400 B.C. ▯ ▯ Anatolian: extinct Hittite Lavian ▯ ▯ Indo-Iranian: 2 parts- Indic portion and Iranian portion Spoken in India, Pakistan Indic: ancient language of India = Sanskirt o Oldest type of sanskirt- Vedic Sanskirt: language of holy books called the vedas to become sacred books of Hindu faith- oldest known variety of that language Iranian: Avestan (ancient Iranian language-recorded in holy book of Zoroastrian religion) Old Persian (second Iranian language- not as well known) ▯ ▯ Balto-Slavic: 2 major divisions Balto: Lithuanian- modern lith; most closely related to PIE, Latvian Slavic: much larger than Balto; South, East, West, o South Slavic: Croatian o West Slavic: Slovak, Polish o East Slavic: Russian, Ukrainian ▯ ▯ Albanian: still spoken; 2 big dialect groups of modern Albanian: Gheg and Tosk Gheg: spoken in north Tosk: spoken in south ▯ ▯ Armenian: One of the last to be identified by scholars as PIE language because 1) borrowed heavily from other languages that surround it/many are non-PIE languages 2) language is unstable/always changing, one of the kinds of changes that occur is changes to the sound and Armenian has gone thru a lot of sound changes The PIE sound of dw becomes erg PIE sound dwo ‘2’ becomes ergu (jergu) ▯ st ▯ Tocharian: wasn’t discovered until the 21 century; most recently discovered PTE lang; turned up in deserts of China by archaeologists These were the PTE who made it farthest East when they left their homeland ▯ ▯ PIE was never written down ▯ -people can reconstruct PIE by comparing languages because sound change is regular ▯ ▯
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