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CL 113 Week 1 Day 1

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by: Lauren Palermo

CL 113 Week 1 Day 1 CL 113LEC

Lauren Palermo
GPA 4.0

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Week 1 Proto-Indo European
Myth & Religion Anc World
Woodard, R D
Class Notes
25 ?




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"The content was detailed, clear, and very well organized. Will definitely be coming back to Lauren for help in class!"
Shanon Spinka

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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Palermo on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CL 113LEC at University at Buffalo taught by Woodard, R D in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 480 views. For similar materials see Myth & Religion Anc World in Classical Studies at University at Buffalo.


Reviews for CL 113 Week 1 Day 1

Star Star Star Star Star

The content was detailed, clear, and very well organized. Will definitely be coming back to Lauren for help in class!

-Shanon Spinka


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Date Created: 02/04/16
Lecture 1 01/27/2016 ▯ Proto-Indo-Europeans  Lived between the 5 and 3 millennial B.C.  Existed in time and space  They go hand in hand  Gimbutas proposed that their homeland was located in the Pontic Steppe  Located between Caspian sea and black sea and north of modern Ukraine and Russia  From their homeland they spread across Europe and deep into asia  Spoke a language called proto-indo-european  Every place they settled in Europe/Asia the language they brought with them changed in slightly different ways  Indo European linguistic family  Within this there are at least 10 sub families: Hellenic, Anatolian, indo-Iranian, Balto-Slavic, Armenian, Albanian, Tocharian, Germanic, Celtic, Italic ▯ ▯ Germanic: can be divided into 3 different linguistic families-East, North, West ▯  East Germanic: is no longer spoken; extinct ex: gothic ▯  West Germanic: ex: English, German, Dutch, Frisian (spoken in north Netherlands and northern Germany, most closely related to English)  North Germanic: Swedish etc ▯ ▯ Celtic: Irish, Welsh  Q celtic languages: Irish- kept labiovelars constantants of PIE languages  P celtic languages: welsh – transformed labiovelars into p sounds ▯ ▯ Labiovelars: constantants doing something with lips and moving tongue in the direction of the soft part of the roof of the mouth- producing two sounds simultaneously ▯ ▯ Italic: Latin, Oscan, Umbrian  Sabellian: subcategory of italic; evolved and the velar component is lost; same with p celtic  Latino-Faliscan: subcategory; preserve those PIE labiovelars ▯ ▯ Hellenic: Attic dialect , Ionic dialect, Tsakonian (modern greek dialect)- comes from Spartans dialect  Mycenaean Greek- earliest greek dialect 1400 B.C. ▯ ▯ Anatolian: extinct  Hittite  Lavian ▯ ▯ Indo-Iranian: 2 parts- Indic portion and Iranian portion  Spoken in India, Pakistan  Indic: ancient language of India = Sanskirt o Oldest type of sanskirt- Vedic Sanskirt: language of holy books called the vedas to become sacred books of Hindu faith- oldest known variety of that language  Iranian: Avestan (ancient Iranian language-recorded in holy book of Zoroastrian religion) Old Persian (second Iranian language- not as well known) ▯ ▯ Balto-Slavic: 2 major divisions  Balto: Lithuanian- modern lith; most closely related to PIE, Latvian  Slavic: much larger than Balto; South, East, West, o South Slavic: Croatian o West Slavic: Slovak, Polish o East Slavic: Russian, Ukrainian ▯ ▯ Albanian: still spoken; 2 big dialect groups of modern Albanian: Gheg and Tosk  Gheg: spoken in north  Tosk: spoken in south ▯ ▯ Armenian:  One of the last to be identified by scholars as PIE language because 1) borrowed heavily from other languages that surround it/many are non-PIE languages 2) language is unstable/always changing, one of the kinds of changes that occur is changes to the sound and Armenian has gone thru a lot of sound changes  The PIE sound of dw becomes erg  PIE sound dwo ‘2’ becomes ergu (jergu) ▯ st ▯ Tocharian: wasn’t discovered until the 21 century; most recently discovered PTE lang; turned up in deserts of China by archaeologists  These were the PTE who made it farthest East when they left their homeland ▯ ▯ PIE was never written down ▯ -people can reconstruct PIE by comparing languages because sound change is regular ▯ ▯


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