World History II Industrial Reform Notes
World History II Industrial Reform Notes HIST 1020
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Becky Stinchcomb on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 at Auburn University taught by Cari Casteel in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/04/16
Hist1020 February 2, 2016 Industrialization by 1850 - Factories all over Europe, not just Great Britain - Growing rapidly in the United States Life During the Industrial Revolution: The Nouveau Riche - The “new rich people” - People who built factories and railroads - The people who benefitted from the industrial revolution Working Class: A Dickensian Nightmare - Almost verbatim of a Charles Dickens book Stafford Shire Worker Housing in Manchester Factory Wages in Manchester, 1830: - Women paid significantly less than men - Men peak in early 30s The New Industrialized Urban Landscape: Tenements - 10- 20 people living in small living spaces Life Expectancy (1850s) - England= 40 years - Manchester= 25 years - Poorest Neighborhoods= 17 years - Babies unable to survive in the living conditions Child Labor - Life expectancy so low because children used as laborers Documenting Industrialization - Jacob Riis (1849- 1914) - Lewis Hine (1873- 1940) - Taking pictures of working conditions - Henry Sharpe “Shorpy” Higginbotham 14 years old (according to caption, but actually looked 10 or 11) Sloss- Sheffield Steel and Iron Co. Birmingham, Alabama Early 1900 Fought in war Died in mining accidents (avalanche of falling rocks) at age 30 Mining - Trapper Sit in dark; open and close doors so miners could go through mine (maintaining air pressure and controlling traffic) 12- 14 hour day - Hurrier Tie a belt and chain around waist and pull coal or whatever is mined out of mine - Imagine Alabama in July in the dark: working conditions for kids - Hewer Digging the actual mine with a pick Job for older and stronger person Older boys (teenagers at least) Cotton Work - Textile Work - Families and children that worked in cotton mills often called “lintheads” (derogatory term) - Doffers Job for the kids Climbing and crawling around doing things that require small hands (picking up lint, climbing under machine) Barefoot Robert Blincoe - The Horrors of a Cotton Mill - Details what it is like to work in a cotton mill as a young kid The English Disease: Rickets - Get it if you don’t get enough Vitamin D - Super duper bow-legged? A Christmas Carol - Did Tiny Tim have rickets? - “Could barely walk without a crutch” - Dickens didn’t have to say exactly what it was when story released because people knew it was Rickets Workplace Injuries - Loss of limbs “Walking in the streets of Manchester is like living in the midst of the Army just returned from a campaign.” – German Tourist The other side of Industrialization Expansion of Slavery - England needed more cotton to keep up with demand Life on the Plantations - Most African slaves went to plantations in the tropical or subtropical regions of the western hemisphere Slave Auction in Virginia Remember: Code Noir (1685) Slave Life - Mortality rates were 3 times higher than non- slaves - Life expectancy: 20- 30 years old Slavery’s extent - Between 1650 and 1860, about 10- 15 million enslaved people were transported from western Africa to the Americas - Most shipped to West Indies, Central America, and South America Forms of Resistance - Work slowly - Sabotage - Runaway - Revolt (remember Haiti) Olaudah Equiano - 1789: published “The Interesting Narrative of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African, Written by Himself” Nat Turner- 1831 - August 21: Nat and 6 other slaves killed the Travis family - Gathered 75 other slaves, killed 51 whites Protesting Industrialization - Trade Unions Outlawed 1800 Class Conflicts - Luddites: breaking textile machinery (angry about the loss of job) - Peterloo Massacre (Manchester riot 1819; 10,000 people met to talk about how bad working life was & were found to be guilty of “organizing”; military ordered to break up crowd but get nervous and just start firing and kill 11 people; 2 of 11 people killed were unarmed women; few of the people had guns or weapons); “Let us die like men, and not be sold like slaves!” - Revolutions in 1848: A BUNCH OF CRAZY STUFF Universal manhood suffrage Protests about working conditions Revolutions from below (working classes) Rumblings of abolition Government Responses - Amending child labor laws - Creation of Poor houses - Widen the voting population - Updating the factory work environment Michael Sadler (1780- 1835) - Sadler Commission (1832) - Interview child laborers and asked questions about bad working conditions - Able to present information to get working conditions changed for children Child Labor Legislation - Factory Act (1833) Timeline for Abolition of Slavery - Slavery abolished in Haiti - 1823: Slavery abolished in Chile - 1833: Abolition of Slavery Act passed in Britain which results in complete emancipation by 1838 - 1848: Slavery abolished in all French and Danish colonies - 1865: Slavery abolished in the U.S. as a result of the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution and the end of the Civil War - 1888: Slavery abolished in Brazil (not into effect until 1890) New Ideologies… - The Industrial Revolution protest movements sparked new intellectual thought - Class conflict (and also racial conflict) will continue - Critiques of capitalism become increasingly popular in places with large disparities of wealth Old Ideology: Classical Liberalism (Adam Smith) - Basis for capitalism - Government intervention (charity, workers’ rights, price- setting) restricts liberty - Anyone who is not wealthy does not deserve to be wealthy Thomas Malthus: An Essay on the Principle of Population (1798) - Predicted that the population would outpace the world’s food supply - People should have fewer children - Government should not help the poor Criticism of Capitalism - Uneven distribution of wealth - Poor people live in squalor - Working conditions are miserable New Ideology: Socialism - Capitalism (individual ownership of the means of production and pursuit of individual profit) is bad for society - Solution: social (shared) ownership of the means of production - Karl Marx: Communist Manifesto Marx had a large audience - People should not be in the business of making money, but in the business of working Capitalism (according to Marx) - All value is created by labor - Under capitalism, the workers add value to a product, and the factory owner pays them a portion of that value as a wage (factory owner gets to pick value themselves and then keeps the rest) - For the capitalist to get a profit, he must pay his laborers less than their labor is worth - Gives capitalists an incentive to push wages down - Capitalism based on exploitation and inequality Socialism - “From each according to his ability, to each according to his work” - Everyone earns the exact value of what he/ she contributes to production Communism - A complete form of socialism in which the factors of production are owned by the “people” - No private property - All goods and services are shared equally How communism is supposed to happen: (according to Marx) - Poverty and desperation drive MASSES of workers (proletariat) to: Seize control of the government and the means of production Wage a VIOLENT REVOLUTION Establish a new government (socialist) Slowly become communist Urbanization occurs very quickly over 40 years The Problem of Urbanization - 100 times more garbage (food and human waste) in the cities - Dumping garbage in the bodies of water - Earth closets for using the restroom - Cesspools (where people dumped their waste from the restroom) causing contamination in the wells because of proximity to the wells - Mass amounts of new illnesses because of the contamination and contagiousness King Cholera- one of the worst ways to die (easy to get from an infected person; chronic diarrhea; so dehydrated that your body dries out and you eventually turn blue) Miasma Theory - Bad or malodorous air as a cause of disease - How people thought diseases spread before the realization that a disease could be transferrable by interaction with infected people John Snow mapped cases of cholera break- outs in order to try to track a cause. The “focus of infection” - John Snow: “stop drinking the water because the water is what’s making you sick” vs the people: “it’s the air that’s making us sick; don’t listen to John Snow” - Removing the pump handle Recommended the pump not be used and that handle should not be used Cholera outbreaks stopped “Broad Street Pump” The Great Stink- 1858 - The river smells so bad due to the dumping of garbage that it causes the whole city to smell bad Sewer Systems - Joseph Bazelgette The Sewer Snake The Germ Theory - Louis Pasteur- “father of germ theory” - Louis Pasteur discovered that germs cause disease. He believed that they caused things like food and drink to rot and spoil and brought sickness to animals and humans. Bathing - Didn’t really happen much before the industrial revolution - Dirt was thought to close pores and not allow bad things to seep in to the skin and make someone smell bad - Linen shirts were worn because thought to be magic that would soak up toxins in the skin without taking the good things that prevented sickness - Clothes were washed but not the body because shirt was supposed to do all of the work Perfumes - Also thought to make someone not smell bad and prevent sickness - People wanted to be over- sensoried so that they couldn’t smell anyone else Cleanliness - Once bathing is discovered to be beneficial, people become obsessed with being clean and washing one’s body - People start to judge and segregate based on how they smelled and whether or not they cleaned themselves frequently Deodorant - Invention and use in the time when cleanliness is obsessed over The Industrial Revolution smelled terrible but it did spark changes that forever altered the way people lived and understood the world around them.
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