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Chapter 1

by: Taylor Gaunt

Chapter 1 2020

Taylor Gaunt
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these notes consist of material that will be on our exam 1
Fundamental of Speech Comm
Michael Cavanaugh
Class Notes
Introduction to Communications




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Gaunt on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2020 at East Carolina University taught by Michael Cavanaugh in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views.


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Date Created: 02/04/16
Chapter 1 Notes Communication: An Introduction Communication theory – careful, systematic and self-conscious discussion/analysis of communication phenomena Science Perspective vs. Rhetorical Perspective (more scientific/research based) Objective reality that is discoverablIndividually or sociably constructed Objective truth Truth = subjective sometimes Universal laws of human behavior Personal feelings/values = import tools Theory construction/testing Unique acts of interpretation Explanation/prediction of human Not looking for universal laws behavior Replicability Three schools of education – Classical period - Sophists o Gorgias  Audience = passive receptors of message  Power of persuasion lay in style  Flowery language o Protagoras  Any argument can be argued from any position  Subjective view  Famous saying: “Man is the measure of all things” - Greeks o Isocrates  Opened school focused on rhetoric/speech  Kairos  Timing/recognition of needs of occasion  Know who audience is and form message accordingly o Plato’s Academy  Select few knew the true truth  Ultimate goal for an individual = justice/living a just life  Opposed sophists  Only one truth o Aristotle’s Lyceum  Most prominent student of Plato  Rhetoric  Power/ability of discerning  Available means of persuasion  The means to persuasion o Deductive Reasoning  Syllogism  All men are mortal, Socrates is a man; therefore Socrates is mortal o Enthymeme  Rhetorical syllogism, based on doxa (opinions/beliefs about the way the world is, our common sense), used for persuasive purposes o Inductive Reasoning  General principle is true because the special case you’ve seen are true  Reasoning by sign/example  Types of proofs o Inartistic evidence  Proofs not created through art of rhetoric  Contracts, tortures, witnesses o Artistic proofs  Concerned with contingent  Persuasion occurs as result of application of art of rhetoric  Metaphors, analogies  Materials of proofs o Modes of proof  Logos  Persuasion related to speech, that is logical proofs  Pathos  Persuasion related to audience, that is, emotional proofs  Ethos  Persuasion related to speaker, that is, ethical proof  3 attributes that inspire ethos o Good sense o Good moral character o Good will - Romans o Cicero  Held highest position in Roman Republic (attorney/senator/consul)  Five Canons/Art of Public Speaking  Invention o Search for materials about which we speak  Arrangement o Proper arrangement of material in the most effective way all while persuading and being informative  Style o Use of correct, appropriate/striking language  Delivery o Actual presentation with effective gestures/vocal modulation  Memory o “lost” art or canon o Quintilian  Encourage education/civic engagement in Rome  Open school/authored a 12 volume work on public speaking  Rhetoric  Art of speaking well  5 principal duties for any speaker  Defend truth  Protect innocent  Prevent criminal behavior  Inspire military  Inspire public - Contemporary Scholars/the Speech Communication Process Shannon/Weaver Model of Communication Signal Received InformatiossaTransmitt Messag n sourcee er Receivee Destinatio n  Info source o Produces a message Noise source  Transmitter o Message is converted to signal to be sent through channel  Channel o Medium over which the single is sent  Receiver o Transforms signal back into message intended for delivery  Destination o Person/machine for wo or which the message is intended  Noise Source o Any interferences that interfere w/ receiver’s ability to receive message Kenneth Burke  Rhetoric o Use of words to form attitudes/to induce actions in other human agents o Identification/consubstantiality  Persuasion only occurs only as a result of identifying/sharing substance w/ others o Division/alienation  We are all distinct/separate physical entities  Basic motive for rhetoric is to eliminate division, seek identification o Rhetorical form  “A work has form in so far as one part of it leads a reader to anticipate another part, to be gratified by the sequence Dramatism – seen as a form of action examined to discover human motives for their act  Pentad o Used to discover motivation in symbolic action o Act  Names what took place, in thought or deed – what happens o Scene  The background of the act, the situation in which it occurred – “the setting” o Agent  The person or kind of person who performed the act o Agency  The means or instruments used to accomplish the act o Purpose  Why the act was done, purpose is not synonymous with motive  Five parts are examined to discover motive for particular act  Can lead to understanding of rhetor’s orientation and the kinds of interpretations he/she likely to apply in future situations  Offers alternative perspectives by focusing on different aspect of Pentad The Negative and its Consequences - Negative o Creation of language o We know what is right b/c of the negative/consequences - Consequences o Judgment of right/wrong  Hierarchy  Inevitable offshoot of negative  Based on level of adherence to numerous negative/commandments o If you are better at obeying these then you are higher up on the hierarchy scale  “rotten w/ perfection”  Motived by position on a hierarchy  Innate drive towards perfection  Mystery  Ordering of classes in a hierarchy lead to estrangement/divisiveness  Creates mystery among levels of hierarchy  Occupational Psychosis o Character of mind elation to one’s occupation  Terministic Screen o Terms/vocabulary we use as a result of our occupations that direct our attention to particular aspects of reality rather than others  Trained incapacity o Result of occupational psychosis and attendant terministic screens which together function blind us


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