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A & P Week 3 Notes

by: Ashley Barranco

A & P Week 3 Notes BIOL 2510 - 001

Ashley Barranco
GPA 3.66

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About this Document

These notes cover the chapter over blood vessels.
Human Anatomy & Physiology II
Dr. Shobnom Ferdous
Class Notes
anatomy and physiology
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Barranco on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2510 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Shobnom Ferdous in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology II in Anatomy at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 02/04/16
Blood Vessels  Blood vessels: form closed circulatory system begins/ends at the heart         Types of vessels   Arteries carry blood away from the heart   Arterioles­ small arteries    Veins carry blood to the heart   Venules­ small veins   Capillaries are in between arteries and veins  Layers (tunics) of blood vessel walls   Tunica intima: endothelium that lines the lumen of all the vessels ­innermost layer ­endothelium + basement membrane and loose CT      Tunica media: smooth muscle cells and elastic fibers ­middle layer  ­innervated by sympathetic NS  ­sympathetic NS = vasoconstriction     Tunica externa: collagen fibers  ­outermost layer  ­protects blood fibers and reinforce it  ­anchor blood vessels to surrounding structures    **If sympathetic vasoconstriction what causes vasodilation?  ­inhibition of sympathetic not parasympathetic  Atrial System   Arteries  1) Elastic/conducting arteries (closed to heart)  ­largest diameters ­thickest walls  ­elastin allows for expansion and recoil  ­allows blood to flow fairly constantly  ­don’t typically vasoconstrict (still have smooth muscle but lots of elastic fibers)  2) Muscular/Distributing arteries       ­ branch form elastic arteries      ­ thickest tunica media      ­ vasoconstriction and vasodilation   Arterioles  ­branch from muscular arteries   ­smallest of arterial system  ­vasoconstriction for inactive tissue cells and vasodilation for active tissue cells (sends  blood where it’s needed the most)  Capillaries   Smallest of all blood vessels   Connect arterial system to venous system   Only have tunica intima   Allow for exchange of material (nutrients , gases, hormones)   Capillaries make up capillary beds: interweaving networks of capillaries  Venous System   Venules  ­capillaries converge to form venules  ­smallest of venous system  ­converge to form veins   Veins  ­thinner walls than arteries  ­Large lumens  ­Very thing T­media  ­Blood reservoirs­ can hold up to 65% of total blood volume  ­contain venous valves  ­relatively low pressure in veins compared to arteries need help getting blood to heart  ­prevent blood flowing backward: If not working varicose veins   System Circulation :  ­Heart­ elastic  ­Arteries­muscular  ­Arteries­capillaries  ­Venules­veins­heart  Circulatory Terms   Blood flow­ amount of blood flowing through vessel, organ, or circulatory system at a  given time period (ml/min)   Cardiac output­ volume blood pumped out by each ventricle in 1 min. (ml/min)   Stroke volume­ volume of blood pumped out by each ventricle with each beat. (ml/beat)   Total peripheral resistance­ total amount of friction blood encounters as it passes through  peripheral (systemic) circulation   ** CO basically measures of blood flow through whole circulation  ** CO= HR x SV  ** SV= EDV­ESV   Blood pressure­ force per unit area exerted on artery wall by the contained blood  ­measured as systolic pressure/diastolic pressure   Systolic pressure­ arterial pressure during systole ventricular contraction   Diastolic pressure­ arterial pressure during diastole (ventricular relaxation)   During diastole pressure in aorta and arteries decrease and walls of aorta and arteries  recoil   120/80 mmHg is the blood pressure of a healthy adult   Pressure in aorta and arteries fluctuate up and down each heartbeat due to systolic and  diastolic pressure   MAP­ more accurate accounts for pulsatile pressures and takes into account that diastole  longer than systole   MAP­not exactly halfway point between systolic and diastolic pressures, though, because diastole is longer than systole   Pressures decrease quite a bit by time gets to capillaries and no longer pulsatile   Low pressure in venous system   Pulse pressure= systolic P –diastolic P   Mean arterial pressure (MAP)­ average arterial pressure during single cardiac cycle  ­MAP= diastolic P + 1/3 (pulse P)   ** What is the MAP of a person with a BP of 160/100?   120 mmHG Venous Adaptations   Venous pressure low = need help getting blood to heart   Skeletal muscle surround vein contract/relax= push blood   Respiratory pump= pressure change in thoracic cavity during breathing moves blood to  heart   Smooth muscle in wall of veins under sympathetic control  Total peripheral resistance   Blood viscosity is relatively constant (except in cases of disorders) determined by  hematocrit (percent of red blood cells in whole blood)   2 Main sources  1. Blood viscosity: Thin blood= low TPR, Thick blood = high TPR  2. Blood vessel diameter  Regulation of BP­ extrinsic   Neural­ short term  ­baroreceptors  ­cardiovascular center in medulla  1. cardioaccelertory center (affect heart rate and force)   2. vasomotor center  3. cardioinhibitory center (affect heart rate and force)    Chemical –long­ term  ­ADH, renin, angitension, and aldosterone  Neural Control of Blood Pressure: Baroreceptor   Baroreceptors­ stretch repceptors, detect changes BP  ­Location: arch of aorta and carotid sinus  ­Send signals to cardiovascular center of brain: medulla oblongata (vasomotor center,  CAC, CIC)   Carotid sinus­ at bifurcation of common carotids (split between internal and external)  Neural Control of Blood Pressure: Baroreceptor reflex  1. Blood Pressure drop  2. Carorecptors sense drop in BP  3. Baroreceptors decrease afferent impulses to medulla­ ACTIVATE CAC AND  VMC  4. Efferent signal via SNS­ release E/NE onto B1 receptors on the heart (increase  HR, contractility, CO)  ­Release of E/NE onto beta 1 receptor on blood vessels= vasoconstriction (increase  TPR)  5. Increase BP back to normal  Chemical Regulation of BP   Antidiuretic hormone ( ADH or vasopressin)  ­synthesized in the hypothalamus  ­production/release triggered by decrease in BP  ­Cause kidneys to reabsorb water, Increase Blood volume and BP  ­Cause vasoconstriction in arterioles, increase TPR to increase BP   Renin: hormone produced by kidneys  ­release triggered by a decrease in BP  ­triggers production of angiotension II   Angiotensin II: cause vasoconstriction which increase TPR  ­trigger release of ADH  ­stimulate adrenal cortex to release aldosterone  ­triggers thirst   Direct renal mechanism­ increase blood volume, increase amount of blood filtered by  kidney, increase urination   Indirect renal mechanism­ renin­anfiiotensin mechanism  ­renin triggers production of angiotensin and ultimately angiotensin II   Aldosterone: increase sodium reabsorption in kidney, water follows by osmosis and  increases blood volume and BP   


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