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Psyc 100

by: Kate Notetaker

Psyc 100 PSYCH 100

Kate Notetaker
GPA 3.6

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Developmental Psychology: Social Development and Role of Daycares
Introduction to psychological science
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kate Notetaker on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 100 at Ball State University taught by Biner in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Introduction to psychological science in Psychlogy at Ball State University.

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Date Created: 02/04/16
2-­‐4-­‐16       Developmental  Psychology     3.  Social  Development     • Takes  place  in  a  wider  variety  of  settings  than  ever  before!   • Some  children  experience  a  lot  of  social  interaction  while  others  experience   very  little   • A  child’s  degree  of  interaction  with  their  parents  and  family  strongly  affects   their  social  development!     o At  least  until  the  child  enters  school     • Social  development  begins  at  birth  when  we  bond  with  our  parents     • First  social  event  for  the  child  (a  lot  of  attention  and  cuddling)   o Before  age  1…   § The  child  is  extremely  demanding     • Do  not  distinguish  their  needs/desires  from  those  of  the  rest  of  the  world     • Luckily  most  of  their  time  is  spent  sleeping  (18-­‐20  hours  a  day)   • At  1  year…   1. Kids  starting  viewing  themselves  as  being  “separate”  from  parents   a. “Stranger  Anxiety”  develops     2. Clear  lack  of  patience     a. Kids  want  things  immediately     3. Actually  very  intelligent,  but  lack  language  skills  to  make  needs   known   a. Very  frustrating  for  everyone!   • At  2  years…   1. Children  understand  they  are  truly  separate  beings     2. “No”  period  starts     3. Play  alone  or  side-­‐by-­‐side  (called  “parallel  play”)   a. Very  little  social  interaction     4. Better  at  controlling  emotions  and  behavior     • From  3-­‐5  years…   1. Children  are  gradually  forced  to  interact  with  others  to  satisfy  their   needs   • By  age  5…   1. Most  children  are  interacting  with  others  in  an  acceptable  and   responsible  manner  (kids  start  negotiating)     ***IMPORTANT***   • The  process  of  achieving  social  maturity  involves  the  breakdown  of   egocentrism.     • The  child  has  to  ultimately  understand  that  he/she  lives  in  a  “social”  world   and  that  SHARING  with  others  is  essential!       • One  factor  found  to  enhance  the  breakdown  of  egocentrism:       o Types  of  toys  kids  play  with     § One  study  looked  at  the  SOCIAL  SKILLS  of  children  who  played   primarily  with  either:     • Isolate  toys  (hand-­‐held  video  games)   • Social  toys  (checkers/chess/board  games)   § Results:     • Kids  exposed  to  more  social  toys  tend  to  prefer  at  a   much  younger  age,  to  play  with  other  kids!     • They  also  tend  to  be  much  more  socially  skilled  as   adults     • So,  sports  involvement  in  “team”  sports  is  good!     • Thus,  it  appears  that  we  learn  our  social  skills  through   our  experiences  with  others       • Father’s  Role  in  Child-­‐Rearing     o Assumed  for  long  time  that  fathers  were  non-­‐essential  to  a  child’s   development     o Times  have  changed!   o Recent  evidence  shows  that  fathers  are  actually:     1. Very  affectionate     2. Responsive     3. Effective  Caretakers   • Most  father’s  involvement  begins  as  early  as  the  bonding  process  right   after  birth     • Unfortunately,  it  is  still  true  that  dads  spend  less  time  with  the  kids  than   moms   • However,  the  quality  and  the  intensity  of  their  attention  is  as  high  as  the   mothers!     • Research  shows  that:     o Dad  -­‐>  playmate  (tend  to  tease)     o Mom  -­‐>  caretaker  (injuries)   o Children  engage  in  different  activities  with  each  parent:     § Wrestling  and  rough/tumble  play  common  with  fathers     § Singing  and  playing  games  common  with  mothers     • Note     o The  quality  of  fathering  is  strongly  related  to  the  quality  of  the   father/mother  relationship!     o A  good  mother/father  relationship  (where  there  is  mutual  respect,   good  communication,  and  abundant  affection)  is  strongly   associated  with  high  quality  fathering!     • In  sum,  research  today  is  showing  clearly  that  a  father’s  role  in  child   development  is  critical     • Father  absence  can  produce  some  very  negative  consequences     Day  Care  Centers     o In  2011,  two-­‐thirds  of  all  preschool  children  were  in  day  care  centers  (23   million  kids)   o Surveys  have  shown  that,  despite  these  numbers,  most  parents  are  reluctant   to  use  non-­‐parental  day  care.     o Research  regarding  day  care  has  focused  on  three  major  questions     o Does  non-­‐parental  day  care  affect  a  child’s…   1. Attachment  to  parents  (emotional  development)?   2. Intellectual  development?   3. Social  development?     o Does  daycare  affect  a  child’s  relationship  with  his/her  parents?     o Data  indicate  that  day  care  does  not,  in  any  way,  reduce  a  child’s   emotional  attachment  to  his/her  parents   o Even  when  children  are  watched  on  a  full-­‐time  basis!     o Does  daycare  affect  a  child’s  intelligence  level?     o They  key  to  good  intellectual  growth  is  having….   § “A  varied  and  stimulating  environment”   • A  lot  of  colors,  noise,  toys     o So  does  daycare  generally  provide  enough  variation  and  stimulation?     § It  depends  on  whether  or  not  daycare  providers  are  of  “high   quality”     § When  they  are  of  high  quality,  centers  usually  provide  ample   stimulation  and  daycare  children  do  well!     o Does  daycare  affect  the  social  development  of  children?     o Socially,  kids  raised  in  high-­‐quality  daycare  centers  are  remarkably   similar  to  kids  raised  exclusively  at  home!   o There  is  a  little  more  aggression  among  daycare-­‐raised  children   (more  competition)     ***IMPORTANT****   • All  of  these  research  conclusions  assume  that  home-­‐raised  children  are   compared  to  children  raised  in  HIGH  QUALITY  day  care  centers!       • Criteria  for  high  quality  daycares:     1. Staff  should  be  both  educated  and  experienced   a. Ask  for  resumes!     2. There  should  be  a  low  child-­‐to-­‐staff  ratio     a. No  more  than  6:1  is  good     b. 3:1  for  kids  under  2   3. There  should  be  a  low  turnover  rate  among  the  staff     • It  is  very  important  that  you  check  these  things  out!   • If  you  suspect  problems  of  any  kid,  call:  1-­‐800-­‐4-­‐A-­‐CHILD     • In  sum  (under  optimal  conditions)  the  psychological  profiles  of   day  care-­‐raised  children  are  very  similar  to  the  profiles  of  home-­‐ raised  children.     • Closing  notes  on  day  care  research   1. research  studies  on  the  effects  of  daycare  are  often  very   difficult  to  conduct!     a. Such  research  is  very  time  consuming     b. High-­‐quality  daycare  centers  are  rare  and  difficult  to   find     c. Parents  are  often  reluctant  to  let  their  children   participate  in  such  research     2. High  quality  day  care  must  be  made  more  affordable     a. It  is  the  poor  who  need  it,  but  can’t  afford  it!   b. Approximate  average  annual  cost  of  daycare  per   child  in  the  Midwest  is  $8,000   3. No  national  policy/law  that  forces  poor  daycare  centers  to   improve  their  services     a. In  2011,  23  million  US  children  were  in  daycare   centers     b. 15  million  of  these  children  attended  unlicensed   centers!  (no  standards  for  health,  safety,  or   education)      


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