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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kate Notetaker on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 100 at Ball State University taught by Biner in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Introduction to psychological science in Psychlogy at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 02/04/16
2-‐4-‐16 Developmental Psychology 3. Social Development • Takes place in a wider variety of settings than ever before! • Some children experience a lot of social interaction while others experience very little • A child’s degree of interaction with their parents and family strongly affects their social development! o At least until the child enters school • Social development begins at birth when we bond with our parents • First social event for the child (a lot of attention and cuddling) o Before age 1… § The child is extremely demanding • Do not distinguish their needs/desires from those of the rest of the world • Luckily most of their time is spent sleeping (18-‐20 hours a day) • At 1 year… 1. Kids starting viewing themselves as being “separate” from parents a. “Stranger Anxiety” develops 2. Clear lack of patience a. Kids want things immediately 3. Actually very intelligent, but lack language skills to make needs known a. Very frustrating for everyone! • At 2 years… 1. Children understand they are truly separate beings 2. “No” period starts 3. Play alone or side-‐by-‐side (called “parallel play”) a. Very little social interaction 4. Better at controlling emotions and behavior • From 3-‐5 years… 1. Children are gradually forced to interact with others to satisfy their needs • By age 5… 1. Most children are interacting with others in an acceptable and responsible manner (kids start negotiating) ***IMPORTANT*** • The process of achieving social maturity involves the breakdown of egocentrism. • The child has to ultimately understand that he/she lives in a “social” world and that SHARING with others is essential! • One factor found to enhance the breakdown of egocentrism: o Types of toys kids play with § One study looked at the SOCIAL SKILLS of children who played primarily with either: • Isolate toys (hand-‐held video games) • Social toys (checkers/chess/board games) § Results: • Kids exposed to more social toys tend to prefer at a much younger age, to play with other kids! • They also tend to be much more socially skilled as adults • So, sports involvement in “team” sports is good! • Thus, it appears that we learn our social skills through our experiences with others • Father’s Role in Child-‐Rearing o Assumed for long time that fathers were non-‐essential to a child’s development o Times have changed! o Recent evidence shows that fathers are actually: 1. Very affectionate 2. Responsive 3. Effective Caretakers • Most father’s involvement begins as early as the bonding process right after birth • Unfortunately, it is still true that dads spend less time with the kids than moms • However, the quality and the intensity of their attention is as high as the mothers! • Research shows that: o Dad -‐> playmate (tend to tease) o Mom -‐> caretaker (injuries) o Children engage in different activities with each parent: § Wrestling and rough/tumble play common with fathers § Singing and playing games common with mothers • Note o The quality of fathering is strongly related to the quality of the father/mother relationship! o A good mother/father relationship (where there is mutual respect, good communication, and abundant affection) is strongly associated with high quality fathering! • In sum, research today is showing clearly that a father’s role in child development is critical • Father absence can produce some very negative consequences Day Care Centers o In 2011, two-‐thirds of all preschool children were in day care centers (23 million kids) o Surveys have shown that, despite these numbers, most parents are reluctant to use non-‐parental day care. o Research regarding day care has focused on three major questions o Does non-‐parental day care affect a child’s… 1. Attachment to parents (emotional development)? 2. Intellectual development? 3. Social development? o Does daycare affect a child’s relationship with his/her parents? o Data indicate that day care does not, in any way, reduce a child’s emotional attachment to his/her parents o Even when children are watched on a full-‐time basis! o Does daycare affect a child’s intelligence level? o They key to good intellectual growth is having…. § “A varied and stimulating environment” • A lot of colors, noise, toys o So does daycare generally provide enough variation and stimulation? § It depends on whether or not daycare providers are of “high quality” § When they are of high quality, centers usually provide ample stimulation and daycare children do well! o Does daycare affect the social development of children? o Socially, kids raised in high-‐quality daycare centers are remarkably similar to kids raised exclusively at home! o There is a little more aggression among daycare-‐raised children (more competition) ***IMPORTANT**** • All of these research conclusions assume that home-‐raised children are compared to children raised in HIGH QUALITY day care centers! • Criteria for high quality daycares: 1. Staff should be both educated and experienced a. Ask for resumes! 2. There should be a low child-‐to-‐staff ratio a. No more than 6:1 is good b. 3:1 for kids under 2 3. There should be a low turnover rate among the staff • It is very important that you check these things out! • If you suspect problems of any kid, call: 1-‐800-‐4-‐A-‐CHILD • In sum (under optimal conditions) the psychological profiles of day care-‐raised children are very similar to the profiles of home-‐ raised children. • Closing notes on day care research 1. research studies on the effects of daycare are often very difficult to conduct! a. Such research is very time consuming b. High-‐quality daycare centers are rare and difficult to find c. Parents are often reluctant to let their children participate in such research 2. High quality day care must be made more affordable a. It is the poor who need it, but can’t afford it! b. Approximate average annual cost of daycare per child in the Midwest is $8,000 3. No national policy/law that forces poor daycare centers to improve their services a. In 2011, 23 million US children were in daycare centers b. 15 million of these children attended unlicensed centers! (no standards for health, safety, or education)
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