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by: India Rangel

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# Lectures 10-13 BIS 2B

India Rangel
UCD
GPA 4.0

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## About this Document

Lecture notes from discussion and lecture.
COURSE
General Biology
PROF.
Dr. M. Schwartz
TYPE
Class Notes
PAGES
2
WORDS
KARMA
25 ?

## Popular in Biological Sciences

This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by India Rangel on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIS 2B at University of California - Davis taught by Dr. M. Schwartz in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biological Sciences at University of California - Davis.

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Date Created: 02/04/16
ł the m ​ ultiplication ruleand) states that to find the probability of two independent events happening together, you  multiply the probabilities of the individual event.  ł the a ​ddition rule or) states that to find the probability of an event that can occur in two different ways, you find the  sum of the individual probabilities.     Lecture #10: Probabilities ()    Genetic complexity:  ł simple traits: dominance  ł co-dominance, incomplete dominance, partial dominance  ł multiple traits at a single locus: pleiotropy  ł epistasis: interactions among loci in trait expression  ł multiple loci for a single trait: polygenic traits  ł environmental effects    We can look at a population as a big mixed set of alleles and we can calculate allele frequencies if we know genotype  frequencies.  We can also calculate expected genotype frequencies if we know allele frequencies.  There are some simple rules  that guide us: frequencies sum to 1; the rules of probabilities still apply.    H-W Equilibrium: a fundamental theorem of population genetics.  The H-W theorem makes a set of null predictions about  expected allelic and genotypic frequencies.  The Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium assumes a large population, a closed  population, random mating, equal mating opportunity, and equal survivorship.     Lecture #11-12: Population Genetics ()    The Hardy-Weinberg theorem is disturbed by:  ł mutation: source of all genetic variation.  They occur infrequently and randomly with respect to what might be  adaptive lay beneficial in a particular selective game.   ጖ point: silent, missense, nonsense, frameshift  ጖ chromosomal: duplications, deletions, inversions, translocations, transpositions   ł gene flow: results from the migration of individuals and gametes from one population to another and the  incorporation of the genres they carry into new gene pools.  ጖ immigration and emigration: large effects if populations are small.   ł genetic drift: random change in allele frequencies and loss of alleles, due to chance.  ጖ founder effect: a small handful of genes moves to a new population, creating a new founded population that  isn’t very diverse.  ጖ population bottlenecks: great decreases in population size, reducing the number of alleles in the population.   ł non-random mating: occurs when individuals choose mates with particular genotypes or phenotypes  ጖ inbreeding: breeding with similar genotypes  ጖ outbreeding: breeding with different genotypes  ጖ sexual selection: causes non-random mating  ጖ strong disparity: social dominance in mating   ł natural selection   ጖ stabilizing: selection against extremes, reducing variability towards the mean  ጖ directional: moving away from the mean in a certain direction  ጖ disruptive: removing the mean and diversifying the population     Discussion #3: Sexual Selection ()  ł if natural selection acts on random mutations that occur at low frequencies, and natural selection acts through  mortality, we would assume that evolution is very slow.   ł density independent selection:  ł density dependent selection:  ł sexual selection on a trait is defined as differences in reproductive success generated by differential success in  competition for mates  ጖ competition through fighting or signaling when there is a 1:1 sex ratio  ł unbalanced investment: usually females place much more into rearing children (the more similar the morphology, the  more similar the sex roles)  ጖ anisogamy: unequal gamete size  ጖ cost of maturing fertile eggs  ጖ cost of rearing young  ጖ low investors: seek many mates   ጖ high investors: seek few, high quality mates  ł types of sexual selection:  ጖ intrasexual: direct competition among males for access to females (fighting)  ጖ intersexual: indirect competition (camouflage)   ł primary models of sexual selection by female choice:  ጖ direct benefit: elaborate traits (non-genetic benefits may imply good genetic traits)  ጖ good genes: beneficial to survival; healthier children   ጖ runaway sexual selection: females mate with the most elaborate traits, but the males have no genetic  benefit     Lecture #13: Heterozygous vs. Homozygous ()  In many cases, it is more beneficial to be heterozygous over homozygous (as in sickle cell anemia).   Model thinking is a form of thought based on assumptions and previous experiences.  Science is a form of model thinking,  using hypotheses, conceptual models and the common patterns of life.

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