New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Week 3 Notes

by: AnnaCiara

Week 3 Notes 2110

GPA 3.4

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

week 3 notes
Psychology of Human Sexuality
Seth Kalichman
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Psychology of Human Sexuality

Popular in Psychlogy

This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by AnnaCiara on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2110 at University of Connecticut taught by Seth Kalichman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Human Sexuality in Psychlogy at University of Connecticut.


Reviews for Week 3 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/04/16
Lec 3 2/4/2016 12:20:00 PM Gender roles  behaviors that are culturally associated with being male or female  norms that vary from culture to culture  definitions of men and women's norms changes over time Theories of gender role development  Psychodynamic perspectives o Freud  social learning theory o Albert Bandera o said in first 5 years little girls and boys know what is expected of them o not widely accepted anymore  Cognitive-Developmental Theory o expectations come from experiences seen in our family o outside of the family, additional expectations can be learned - life long process o acknowledges biological factors involved  Gender Scheme Theory o similar to cognitive developmental theory but less emphasis on life long learning o at any time in life, personal and social pressures o schema are cognitive structures that give instruction on development of attitudes  Multifactorial theories o Each theory carries some truth o environmental factors and personal perceptions are important o also takes into account biological factors Gender identities  different than gender roles  internal sense of self as either male or female o generally matches body type (anatomically)  term for this match of anatomy and gender identity: cisgender  term for when they don't match: transgender  gender dysphoria may result from isolation/lack of social acceptance Transgender identities  used to be considered a psychiatric disorder  now, gender dysphoria is the psychiatric disorder associated o may result after sex reassignment surgery if person is expecting to feel a perfect match of identity and anatomy Sex reassignment  STEP 1: living as member of the desired gender while receiving hormonal treatment, counseling, legal advice  STEP 2: Surgery o MALE-->FEMALE: removal testicles (also removes androgens that they secrete), creating artificial vagina by reshaping penile tissue into clitoris, potentially breast implants o FEMALE-->MALE: removal of breasts, uterus, ovaries; clitoris is surgically reshaped to a penis but will be small. labia are formed into scrotum and prosthetic testicles may be put in, falloplasty (creating an artificial penis), not always able to make functional erection but devices exist to aid, this process may be more obvious than the male to female change Female Sexual Anatomy  Labeling of female (genitals in general) genitals may reflect social image of female  External structures: the vulva o labia minora (minor lips)  merge at clitoris as the clitoral hood  highly sensitive  enlarge during sexual response and enclose the vestibule o Mons  fatty tissue just below surface of the skin  sensitive to sexual stimulation  directly above the clitoris  movement can result in the movement of the clitoral hood o clitoris  structure that develops from the undifferentiated glands  protected by a fold of skin called the clitoral hood  made up of erectile tissue internally  crus clitoris (3-3.5 in) laterally lining vaginal opening on either side  contains the corpus cavernosum  rigid dense connective tissue  don't form the glands of the clitoris  erectile tissue  become engorged with blood during sexual response o internal and external structure enlarge due to sexual response o opening of urethra o opening of vagina (introitus)  folds of tissue on either side: minor and major lips o opening of Bartholin's gland  important in sexual response, secrete vaginal fluids o Labia major (major lips) o Pernineum: external skin area between the anus and vagina o Skene's gland: accessory gland Vagina  muscular tube made us smooth muscle (elasticity) -involuntary control  mucosal membrane lining  outer third of the vagina is the most sensitive  about 4 inches long  most inner part is least sensitive  Hymen: thin skin membrane at opening of vagina o 1)Cribiform (branched) o 2)annular (mostly open), o 3)septate (mostly open but has one strand crossing opening) o 4)imperforate (mostly closed) o intact hymen is culturally associated with virginity: MYTH  things other than sex can damage hymen  2 sets of muscles: sphincter vagenae & levitator anae o have some voluntary control (contract and relax) o not smooth muscle  rigid walls = vaginal rugae Gspot  Ernst Graffenberg ("G"-spot)  Thought to be a myth but it does exist  about half to a third way up the vagina on the anterior vaginal wall  may enlarge during sexual response  does have nervous tissue connections Cervix  hole where sperm enters  hole where menstrual cycle lining goes through Uterus  thick muscular walls with 3 layers: outermost layer to innermost o 1) perimetrium: coating keeping everything together o 2) myometrium: thick smooth muscular lining o 3) endometrium: sheds during menstrual cycle  3 in by 3 inches in women who haven't given birth  fundus is top part  Os: structure that is opening from cervix to uterus  common site of disease because of the high cell growth and shedding o fibroid tumors- usually noncancerous growths in the uterus  hysterectomy: removal of uterus Ovaries  the differentiated version of the undifferentiated gonads  produce gametes (eggs also called oocytes or ova) during ovulation - hormonally control process when egg is released from follicle  2 ovaries, on each side of the lower abdomen  produce hormones: primarily estrogen and progesterone Fallopian tube (aka uterine tubes)  opening to uterus  branch off each side of fundus  fimbriae come off end of fallopian tube and go onto the ovary o have cilia that make current to draw egg into fallopian tube o if sperm is present in fallopian tube then fertilization may occur  structure connecting ovary to uterus: ovarian ligament  walls are also lined with cilia to continue to draw egg in Internal and other structures  urethra: tube where urine passes  urethral opening  pelvic floor: support for all structures  perineum  anus Breasts  made of gland tissues: mammary glands  function: lactation  primarily fatty tissue that supports the gland o 25-35 lobes of mammary gland in each breast o ducts have common opening of the nipple o nipple surrounded by the areola (stimulation and engorgement because it is erectile tissue)  Cancer o Mammography o treatment o mastectomy - breast is removed o lumpectomy - mass/growth is removed o most are fueled by estrogens  younger women produce more estrogen which may allow the cancer to grow faster  adipose tissue produces estrogen: obesity is a major risk factor o Self-examination via visual exam and manual exam  closer to surface and size of lump  after hot shower - heat may loosen tissues "Female" sexual hormones  Produced by:  1) hypothalamus, (produces Gonadotropin releasing hormones: regulate production of other hormones  2)pituitary gland gonadotropins o FSH - follicle stimulating hormone, o LH- leutinizing hormone - triggers rupture of follicle and release of egg o Gonadotropin releasing hormones: regulate production of other hormones o Gonadotropins - effect the gonads  3)ovary: o estrogen: stimulate maturation of reproductive organs o progesterone - helps maintain uterine lining during pregnancy and vascularization of the endometrium  The menstrual cycle o 4 stags  1) preovulatory stage (follicular stage)  2) ovulation: LH and corpus luteum  3) luteal secretion: corpus luteum secretes progesterone and more estrogen  4) egg isn't fertilized - uterine wall is shed through vagina  if egg is fertilized it usually implants in vascular lining of uterus and stops the shedding of the uterine wall (if it implants in the fallopian tube it can be a problem - tubal pregnancy)  Dysmenorrhea - pain from menstruation o PreMenstrual System (PMS) severity of the discomfort and physical changes vary  Menopause: menstruation stops, ongoing process, cycle may slow before it completely stops o Hormone replacement therapy works to replace the estrogen and slow the effects of menopause o one symptom: hot flashes from changes in estrogen that impact smooth muscle Male Sexual Anatomy  language used to describe male genitals also reflected societal image  Penis, scrotum (external pouch of skin holding testes)  testes are male gonads o undifferentiated gonads differentiated to male  clitoral glans are homologous to glans of penis - attached to shaft by frenulum on underside of penis  shaft of penis has loose fitting skin containing corpus cabernosa  ridge of penis  foreskin is homologous to the clitoral hood  urethra runs between 2 tubes  tunica is tough connective tissue that holds in connective tubes (seminiferous tubules - make sperm) tightly packed  tubules exit through epididymis (joining of exiting seminiferous tubules) o sperm matures here o during sexual response, this squeezes sperm into the vas deferens  urinary meatus is opening at end of shaft  ridge near end is the cornoal ridge = sulcus  apparent circumcision scar line  there are no muscles or bones in the penis but there are voluntary muscles at the base  erection is blood flowing into penis faster than it is flowing out  erectile response can happen without any stimulation  polsters slow the exiting blood flow  circumcision - removal of the foreskin o varies across cultures, done in females as well o uncircumcised penis may avoid transmittance of STDs  average flaccid penis is about 3.5 inches 3.9 in circumference  avg 5.1 inch 4.9 circumference  no correlation to other body parts sizes!!  normal distribution of penis size Testes and scrotum  testes have lobes  epididymis is storage place for sperm  STDs can migrate through vas deferens to the epididymis (chlamydia for example)  epididymis eventually joins with urethra (have common exit)  primary glands that produce semen:  ejaculatory duct  Cowper's gland (bulbourethral gland): makes fluid that is basic to balance acidic environment for sperm to live, "pre-ejaculatory fluid" sperm is in it in low quantities o low probability but can happen Peritonerum of skin between genitals and anus (same in women) Sperm  produced in the testes  gametes  composed of a head, middle piece and tail  millions expelled during sexual response  middle part has fast metabolism  expels chemicals to dissolve coating around the egg  male accessory glands: semica veslivles, prostate gland, cowpers glands, bulbourethral gland (also produces some seminal fluid)  seminal fluid  coats urethra before ejaculation?  prostate gland lies behind bladder o produces some of the seminal fluid o provides some of the viscous texture of semen o prostate gland secretes alkaline products that can neutralize urethra and vagina Testicular cancer  prognosis depends on stage of detection and age  more common in young men 20-35 and is more lethal in young men  easily self detected  early detected testicular cancer is one of the most curable "Male" hormones and "Andropause" Male breast cancer  men can get breast cancer and can get mammograms  soy has natural estrogens in it


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.