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Bio 231- Human Taxonomy

by: Brittany Dudukovich

Bio 231- Human Taxonomy Bio 231

Marketplace > Western Kentucky University > Bio 231 > Bio 231 Human Taxonomy
Brittany Dudukovich
GPA 3.2
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About this Document

These notes cover all of the human taxonomy chapter (which will be on our next test.)
Human anatomy and physiology
Dana F. Emberton-Tinius
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Dudukovich on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 231 at Western Kentucky University taught by Dana F. Emberton-Tinius in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views.


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Date Created: 02/04/16
Bio 231 –Prof. Emberton-Tinius - Notes Human Taxonomy Domains Largest category (1990): 3 category systems based on genetic relationships  Eubacteria: Normal bacteria, microscopic, prokaryotic  Archae: Extremophiles (lives in extreme hot/cold weather conditions)  Eukarya: Plants, fungi, protists, animals… (everything else) Kingdoms: Broad Category of Classification (1969)  1. Monera  2. Protista  3. Fungi  4. Plantae  5. Animalia (humans) Kingdom Characteristics:  Monera: Eubacteria, archae, prokaryotic (no nucleus), unicellular, microscopic  Protista: Unicellular, microscopic, eukaryotic (has nucleus), membrane bound, has organelles  Fungi: unicellular (yeasts), multicellular (molds), eukaryotic, saprobes (decaying/dead)  Plantae: Multicellular, photosynthetic, autotrophic (self food maker)  Animalia: multicellular, microscopic, eukaryotic, membrane bound, has organelles, heterotrophic (ingests food), muscle tissue movement Animal Kingdom: General Characteristics • Eukaryotic • Multicellular • Heterotrophic • Muscle tissue (of some type) • Nervous cell/tissue Binomial Nomenclature: “Homosapien” • 1. First name: (Genus) Homo - Capitalized - Underlined or italicized - Latin • 2. Second name: (species) sapien - Lower case - Underlined or italicized - Latin Phylum= Chordata [Embryologically shared characteristics]: A.) Notochord: [Firm, flexible rod of supporting tissue] - Notochord features? 1. Dorsal aspect of embryo 2. Allows parts of the body to specialize 3. Gives rise to: a. Intervertebral disc b. Body of vertebrae Additional Chordata Characteristics: B. Pharyngeal gillslits and pouches – Humans have 4 pairs that give rise to 4 structures: – Walls of tonsils (capsule where tonsils form): A.) Lingual tonsils - at base of tongue B.) Pharyngeal tonsils - top of throat behind nasal cavity C.) Palatine tonsils - side of throat, often removed 2. Pharyngeal antrum - (middle ear cavity) tympanic tube 3. First pair of parathyroid glands and thymus gland 4. Second pair of parathyroid glands and part of thyroid C. Presence of a hollow, tubular nerve-chord ­ Dorsally located ­ Turns unto spinal cord and extends to the brain ­ Lies above notochord, gets surrounded by bone D. Post-anal tail - Vertebral column grows slower than the trunk - Trunk envelopes the tail as the embryo develops Subphyla – Vertebrata: • Endoskeleton- made of cartilage or bone • Vertebral column- jointed • Cranium- expanded brain case • Well-developed brain and special sense organs- eyes/ears help accommodate many signals Class – Mammalia (General characteristics): • Mammary Glands- Nutrition • Pili- Hair • Endothermic- generate own heat through metabolism • Homeothermic- Warm blooded • Heterodontic- Posses more than 1 type of tooth – Incisors – Canines – Premolars – Molars Order - Primates (Primata): • Incisors- 4 upper and 4 lower • 2 distinct clavicles • 2 functional mammary glands- Females • Pendulous penis- Males • Eyes- Directed forward • Stereoscopic vision- 3D • (Perceives different image from each eye) • Flat nails- No claws • Opposable thumbs- Increase dexterity Family – Hominidae: • Bipedalism- Walk upright on two feet • Large cerebral hemisphere development Advanced speech capability, complex thinking Advanced tool making: computers of today? - How will they compare with those your grandchildren will us? • Genus- Home • Species- sapien Complete Classification (recap): • Domaine: Eukarya • Kingdom: Animalia • Phylum: Chordata • Subphylum: Vertebrata • Class: Mammalia • Order: Primate • Family: Hominidae • Genus: Homo • Species: sapian


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