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GY 101 wk3

by: Elle Notetaker

GY 101 wk3 GY 101

Elle Notetaker
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About this Document

Atmospheric composition, structure, and radiation from the sun.
Atmospheric Processes & Patterns
Eben Broadbent
Class Notes
geography, Atmosphere, radiation




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elle Notetaker on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GY 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Eben Broadbent in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 151 views. For similar materials see Atmospheric Processes & Patterns in Geography at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 02/04/16
GY101 notes from 2/3/2016 The sun is mostly Hydrogen (No way! ­that was sarcasm, for those of you who couldn’t tell.)  Photosphere­ 9,900 Deg. F, surface of the sun.  Energy­ the ability to do work. every activity requires energy­ typing, reading, breathing, etc.  electromagnetic radiation ­ of the energy the sun gives out, 1/ 2bill. of it is given to Earth as  such. 8 min for light to get to us. Earth’s surface and atmos each take up some of the sun’s emr. TYpes of Energy a) kinetic­ throw an object, it has kinetic. moving energy. ex: light, heat, motion,  electricity. b) potential­ ex. holding an object in the air, it’s got potential energy. PE comes from where an object is/ location. stored energy. ex: food, gas, firewood, battery, high  pressure, reservoirs.  power­ the amount of energy being used work­ moving something a distance by using force Rollercoaster: at top before you start going, you’ve got lots of potential energy. at the bottom of  the hill, where you’re going fastest, you have a lot of kinetic energy.  energy transfer mechanisms: how to move energy from pt a to pt. b. 3 main processes conduction, convection, radiation 1) conduction ­ heat goes through substance w/out the molecules moving in  direction of transfer. molecule to molecule shift of heat. heat going from a mug to your  hand. goes to the ground, works best in solids (the molecules are touching & can pass  off the energy easier. like making a bucket brigade when a house is on fire. The water  moves, the people don’t. 2) convection­ heat moves when a liquid is mixed­ both liquids & gases. heat goes  through a pot of boiling water, heating of the earth’s surface. fans are an example of this­ they move the air around to cool you off (unless they’re going slowly, in which case they  make you hotter­ either way, they move energy and change temperatures in the area  being affected.) molecules are moving around. 3) radiation­ moving energy without using physical mediums. the sun sends its  energy to us through the black void of space via radiation. radiation is emitted by  everything,, always. you feel the heat of a campfire even though you aren’t touching it­  that’s radiation. there are no molecules involved in this. at all.  Radiation Characteristics: R. quantity­ the amount of energy being transferred. related to amplitude/wave height R quality­ wavelength­ distance between wave crests. ex: each color has its own wavelength of  emr. electric and magnetic waves push each other along at the speed of light.  electromagnetic spectrum­ range of radiation wavelengths, each type of wave with its own  range. ex, visible light has a limited range of wavelengths, and microwaves have their own.  Wavelengths range in length from the height of an atomic nucleus to that of Mt. Everest. It’s the  really small ones that we tend to be worried about­ gamma radiation, x­rays, ultraviolet. ORDER OF Lengths (short to long): gamma, X­rays, Ultraviolet, Visible light, infrared,  microwaves, fm radio, then am radio waves, long radio waves the sun sends out all types of radiation at all times. yay! Steffan­Boltzmann law­ an object’s radiation intensity is proportional to it’s temperature to the  4th power. units: watts/m².  Blackbodies emit radiation perfectly (they’re only hypothetical right now, though). The amount  and wavelengths of energies are defined by physical laws, and the radiation amount/intensity is  related to the temperature of the object. The temperature­radiation proportion is NOT linear, and is regulated by the Steffan­Boltzmann law. Earth and the Sun are similar to blackbodies  because they emit radiation that almost matches the SB law. blackbodies are theoretical things whose radiation matches the steffan­boltzmann law perfectly.  Graybodies­ they send out some percentage of what blackbodies would emit. liquids & solids  are typically graybodies. Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) a combination of magnetic & electric waves, moving together but on separate planes, propel  each other forward at the speed of light. EMR travels as a wave/series of waves, with all the  required properties. (You know­ amplitude, wavelength, frequency­ all that jazz.) Emissivity­ the percent of energy a substance sends out, as related to what it would send out if  said object were a blackbody. most stuff will have a .9 emissivity or above. radiation intensity is  a function of temperature and emissivity.  EMR doesn’t slow down or anything as it gets closer to the Earth­ it spreads out. (A flashlight’s  illumination is stronger as you get closer to it, but it will cover a lot more area if you move the  light back some. In the same way, radiation is inversely proportional to the distance between the objects of interest squared. In other words, radiation is proportional to 1/d²­ this is called the  inverse square law. Solar constant­ a measure of flux density and the amount of Solar EMR the Earth system gets.  It comes in constantly, at a rate of roughly 1,366 watts/m² on the big circle of the Earth system.  It’s kind of confusing, so here’s a picture for you.


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