NUTR 244 Chapter 1 Flashcards
NUTR 244 Chapter 1 Flashcards NUTR 244
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amber Logan on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NUTR 244 at University of New Mexico taught by Jean Cerami in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Human Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 02/04/16
Food Plants and animals we consume The science of the things we eat Nutrition (including their chemical components) and their effects on our health Chronic disease Diseases that come on slowly and last a long time Behaviors that increase likelihood of Risk factors developing a particular disease/illness Proper nutrition can: 1. Improve our physical, emotional, and spiritual health Proper nutrition & health 2. Prevent disease (especially chronic) 3. Help us manage our weight 4. Maintain our energy and vitality Top 3 in U.S.: Chronic diseases due to poor nutrition 1. Heart disease - #1 killer in U.S. 2. Cancer 3. Stroke Identifies nutrition-related goals for U.S. Promotes optimal health and disease Healthy People 2020 prevention Created by U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 1. Help people attain higher quality/longer life 2. Health equity – improve health for all 4 primary goals of Healthy People 2020 3. Create social and physical environments that promote health 4. Promote quality of life, healthy development, and healthy behavior Chemicals in foods that our bodies use Nutrients for growth, maintenance, and repair 1. Carbohydrates – energy-yielding 2. Lipids – energy-yielding 3. Proteins – energy-yielding 6 classes of nutrients 4. Vitamins – non-energy-yielding 5. Minerals – non-energy-yielding 6. Water – non-energy-yielding Nutrients that contain Carbon and Organic nutrients Hydrogen e.g. carbs, lipids, proteins and vitamins Nutrients that don’t contain both Carbon Inorganic nutrients and Hydrogen e.g. minerals and water Nutrients that our bodies don’t make/can’t Essential nutrients make enough of à must be obtained from the foods we eat Nutrients that are needed in relatively large amounts daily Macronutrients e.g. carbs, lipids, proteins, and water Nutrients that are needed in relatively small amounts daily Micronutrients e.g. vitamins and minerals A drug and toxin Alcohol NOT a nutrient – doesn’t support body’s building/repairing functions Amount of heat required to raise Kilocalorie temperature of 1kg of water by 1°C 1 kcal/Calorie = 1000 calories Primary fuel source, especially for the Carbohydrates brain and nerve cells Chemical formula: CH O 2 4kcals/gm Carbohydrates & kcals Should make up 45-65% of daily kcal intake Large hydrophobic molecules made up of Lipids C, H, and O Provide essential vitamins and fatty acids Lipids made up of 1 glycerol + 3 fatty acid tails Triglycerides Source of energy when at rest and during low-intensity exercises Stored as adipose (fat) tissue 9 kcals/gm Lipids & kcals Should make up 20-35% of daily kcal intake Supports tissue growth, repair, and maintenance Protein Contains C, H, O, and N Monomer: amino acids 4kcals/gm Proteins & kcals Should make up 10-35% of daily kcal intake Functions: 1. Important in release and utilization Vitamins of energy from macronutrients 2. Help build and maintain bone 3. Support the immune system 4. Ensure healthy vision Soluble in fat à stored in body à excess Fat-soluble vitamins amounts can have toxic effects e.g. Vitamins A, D, E, and K Soluble in water à excess amounts are generally excreted Water-soluble vitamins Toxicity results from supplementation e.g. C and B-vitamins Assist in fluid regulation, energy production, bone and blood health, and rid body of harmful metabolism bi- Minerals products In smallest chemical form à aren’t broke down Trace minerals Need <100mg/day Major minerals Need >100mg/day Water Vital inorganic substance that supports all body functions 7cals/gm Alcohol & kcals No daily amount is recommended Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) Identify a healthy person’s nutrient needs Average daily nutrient intake estimated to Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) meet requirement of ½ of healthy individuals Average daily nutrient intake that meets nutrient requirement of most (97-98%) of Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) healthy individuals EARs are used to establish this Recommended average daily nutrient intake based off of observations/experiments on healthy Adequate Intakes (AIs) people Used when there isn’t enough info/research to make a RDA Highest average daily nutrient level that poses no risk of adverse health effects Tolerable Upper-Intake Levels (ULs) NOT a goal amount – exceeding these levels that cause toxicity Average dietary energy intake predicted to maintain energy balance Estimated Energy Requirements (EERs) Defined by age, gender, weight, height, and physical activity level Range of intakes for energy sources (macronutrients) associated w/ reduced Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution risk of chronic disease and adequate Range (AMDRs) nutrients i.e. carbs 45-65%, lipids 20-35%, proteins 10-35% History and physical exam (H&P), health history questionnaires, diet history, 24- hour dietary recall, food frequency Tools for assessing nutritional status questionnaire, anthropometric assessments, etc. Undernutrition or overnutrition Malnutrition Excess or deficient in energy and nutrient intake à imbalance of nutrients Objective global assessment Method of examining a patient by observing and interviewing them Anthro = “human” + metric = “measure” Provides objective data (e.g. height, Anthropometric assessment weight, limb circumference, etc.) that can be used to assess trends in nutritional status and growth Nutrition research Is evidence-based 1. Adequate sample sizes Well-designed studies have… 2. A control group 3. Control of other variables Pros: Subjects have long-life spans Human studies Cons: Difficult to control for all variables Pros: Preliminary information is available and accurate Animal studies Control for other variables Cons: Humans are the same as animals Observational studies Epidemiological studies Determine correlation, NOT causation Registered Dietician (RD) Trustworthy nutrition experts Licensed Dietician (LD) Dieticians w/ advanced degrees The study of interaction among genes, Nutrigenomics environment, and nutrition
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