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History of IR Lecture 2/4

by: Maritt Nowak

History of IR Lecture 2/4 IR 350, HI 334

Maritt Nowak
GPA 3.47

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About this Document

Khrushchev's foreign policy, de-Stalinization and peaceful coexistance
History of International Relations 1945-Present
William Keylor
Class Notes
World History, Modern World History, Russian History, European History, international relations, history
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maritt Nowak on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to IR 350, HI 334 at Boston University taught by William Keylor in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see History of International Relations 1945-Present in International Studies at Boston University.


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Date Created: 02/04/16
IR 350/HI 334 “History doesn’t repeat itself, but it rhymes”  ­Mark Twain Prospects for a Peaceful Coexistence I. The Death of Joseph Stalin A. March 5, 1953 B. brain hemorrhage (officially) C. poisoned by Lavrenti Beria?  D. right after “doctor’s plot” E. largest mass­murderer in history: “A single death is a tragedy, a million deaths is  strategic” F. funeral was so crowded, many were trampled to death G. body embalmed and placed next to Lenin in Red Square tomb, removed in 1961 H. Who will take his place? 1. N. Bulgarin (army guy) 2. V. Molotov (foreign minister) 3. G. Malenkov (in charge of nuclear program) 4. L. Beria (secret police chief, so they get rid of him quick) 5. N. Khrushchev (Stalinist in power in Ukraine) I. collective rule 1. prime minister: Malenkov 2. first secretary: Khrushchev 3. Bulganin is a figurehead II. Compromise in Asia and Europe, 1953­55  A   The “Thaw” in East­West Relations   1. 1953­56 2. Armistice in Korea: July 27, 1953 3. Armistice in Indochina a) July 20, 1954 b) peace conference in Geneva feat. new groups (1) French (2) Viet Minh (3) USSR (Molotov) (4) People’s Republic of China (5) Americans (6) British, etc. (7) Soviets and Chinese pressure Viet Minh into a compromised peace, North  Vietnam goes communist, the South stays non­communist, headquartered in  Saigon c) Ho Chi Minh 4. Soviet Witdrawl a) Finland, 1955 (1) 1947: Porkhala Naval Base (near Helsinki) leased to USSR (2) 1956: base returned to Finland b) Austria, 1955 (1) divided like Germany between 4 (2) Vienna is like Berlin (3) The Austrian State Treaty (a) 1955 (b) four occupation forces will withdraw (c) Austria is completely independent (d) Austria must remain perpetually neutral (cannot join NATO or Warsaw  Pact) c) The First Summit Conference (1) Geneva, July 1955 (2) “The Big Four”  (a) US i) Eisenhower ii) Dulles iii) Bohlen  iv) Goodpasture (aide who writes all about it) (b) UK (c) France i) Pinay ii) Faure (d) USSR i) Bulganin ii) Molotov iii) Khrushchev iv) Zhukov (3) The “Spirit of Geneva” (4) Eisenhower’s “Open Skies” Proposal (a) mutual aerial surveillance of defense positions (b) blueprints shared of facilities of both superpowers (c) USSR rejects: violation of national sovereignty (d) 1956: Eisenhower authorizes flights of U.S. spy plane “U­2” III. The Speech that Shocked the World A. February 1956 B. to all communist parties of the world C. Sergei Khrushchev: “My father spent a restless night before his speech. He did not rule  out the possibility that he might be arrested.”  D   “Peaceful Coexistence”   1. war between the two great powers would be a nuclear war and there would be no  winner because the consequences are too great 2. USSR must re­think the Marxist­Leninist­Stalinist idea that war with capitalist west is  inevitable  3. compete with the west politically, ideologically, economically, but military conflict will  end the world 4. orders the guards to lock the doors, begins secret speech a) denounces Stalin as an autocrat, traitor, monster b) Stalinism has nothing to do with communism 5. Israeli intelligence leaks speech to State Dept. and it ends up in New York Times 6. conflicts between Stalinists (in power) and reformist communists IV. Two Models of De­Stalinization: Warsaw and Budapest in the Summer­Fall 1956  A   Rebellion in Poland   1. Summer 1956 2. Pols resent Russia (history) 3. student demonstrations in Warsaw 4. “Blood of a martyr” (demonstrators killed, more people protest) 5. Stalinists dethroned 6. replaced by W. Gomulka (previously jailed for “Titoism”) 7. The Catholic Church is very powerful in Poland (Catholicism and communism?) 8. worries Khrushchev a) flies to Warsaw to meet with Gomulka b) Gomulka promises to keep Poland 100% communist and loyal ally of USSR  B   Rebellion in Hungary   1. Fall 1956 2. Prime Minister Imre Nagy 3. criticism of USSR, not just Stalin 4. military contingent in Hungary that is very unpopular 5. Nagy announces multi­party elections 6. Hungary withdraws from Warsaw Pact in favor of absolute neutrality (like Austria) 7. Red Army crushes the Hungarian revolution 8. thousands died   C   Eisenhower departs from containmen t 1. Roll back communism to Russia 2. liberate the satellite states 3. CIA 4. radio Free Europe 5. encourage revolution 6. no intention to intervene militarily in Europe 7. division of Europe accepted 8. Hungarian freedom fighters criticize US for not coming to their aid V. East Meets West: Khrushchev in America  A   The “Kitchen Debate”   1. July 1959 2. Soviet products in America, American products in USSR & model American home 3. Nixon (considering presidential run)    4. Brezhnev (overthrows Khrushchev) is there too 5. Khrushchev wants to visit the U.S. (first Russian leader in history!)  B   Khrushchev in the U.S . 1. September 1959 2. Berlin issue 3. nuclear arms 4. Khrushchev wants to tour a) inspects a cow farm in Iowa b) visits Hollywood movie set “Can Can” and meets Shirley Maclaine and Frank  Sinatra (American decadence, showing too much skin) c) not allowed in Disneyland 5. Mr. K and Ike Confer a) September 1959 b) Agreement to put Berlin “on ice” c) summit in Paris in 1960 d) invites Eisenhower to Soviet Union VI. The Rise of the Nonaligned Bloc A. 1955­1960 B. The Bandung Conference, 1955 1. Indonesia 2. Achmed Sukarno C. former colonial countries (mostly) who want to be neutral D. Nasser of Egypt E. Nehru of India F. Tito of Yugoslavia G. Independence to come in Africa, many join nonaligned bloc H. The Kremlin’s Campaign 1. Bulganin and Khrushchev  2. places like India 3. win influence in newly independent countries 4. JFK takes up the same cause later


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