History 112 Week 3 Notes
History 112 Week 3 Notes History 112
Popular in American History Since 1865
Popular in History
This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sequoia Brown on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 112 at University of South Carolina taught by Foxworth in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see American History Since 1865 in History at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 02/04/16
History 112 January 26, 2016 Urbanization and Industry Rise of Cities and skyscrapers transfers rural population The 1 scraper was 9 stories in 1834 in Chicago Suburbs are starting to exist during this time th The wealthy live on Fifth Avenue at the turn of the 20 century Tenement Housing for the poor (46 story buildings, 2 toilets per floor, 18 people per apartment, not a restful place to live as far as sanitation and rest) The condition of workers There are office buildings and elevators in buildings Technology during this time period 1876 Telephones Lightbulb, typewriter, power stations Immigration to America Statue of Liberty was created at Ellis Island (established in 1892) during the Gilded Age “Give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, the wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest tost to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door! The idea of an American dream Ellis Island 12 million people passed through Ellis Island only operational until 1924 Not every immigrant did not have to go through Ellis island you only had to if you were a passenger people who are disease, mental illness, insane, criminals were turned away at Ellis Island People coming through Ellis Island growing members of Italian immigrants Up to 50% of Italian immigrants went back to Italy Canadian, Latin American, Jewish, large percentage of German immigration *Great ethnic diversity, but race became an issue to distinguish *Intellectual trends at the end of the 19 century: ordering human beings by ethnicity What do owners owe workers? Social Darwinism: the fir succeed in the market (many tied it to laissezfaire economics in the Gilded Age) No labor unions before the Gilded Age (no collective bargaining, wage negotiations) unskilled workers are highly replaceablethey need jobs, especially with high rates of immigration You have no power as a worker, and the worker and wealthy gain more conflict enormous racial prejudice against the geman italians and irish *if you believe in social Darwinism, the wealthy think they do not owe the poor anything *if you are a strict believe you actually think the poor people hold back society Carnegie’s “Gospel of Wealth” Andrew Carnegie was poor and became wealthy, means he can’t be just fit he believes people can become more fit its less rigid, he thinks being wealthy is good for society he believes the wealthy should spend their money, and advocates philanthropy and donated around 350 million dollars during his lifetime Wealth is beneficial to all in a society, even if it is held by some competition drives progress His program of gospel of wealth says the wealthy should serve as “trustees” of their wealth and contribute to the public good through philanthropy his workers work 12 hours 7 days a week and he didn’t raise their pay but built them Libraries, parks, recreation, arts as public institutions> to help them possible move up in society His is “returning their surplus wealth to the mass” Man of wealth can do “for them (the poor) better than they would or could do for themselves” not exactly social Darwinism (because of the intervention of private charity) Great Railroad Strike of 1877 direct correlation of the long great depression *First example of MASS discontent happened during economic downturn Start with B&O Railroad: 10% wage cut for workers and a simultaneous 10% dividend to stockowners shortened work weeks as well the strikes spreads from Baltimore and Ohio, to the East coast (nearly 100,000 workers walk out of work and it not being organized in any two places) workers yet not formally organized in US spontaneous yet correlated strikes all over the country bring light to worker discontent Should this be the concern of the federal government when workers are walking off the jobs? > yes!!! And the president sends in the National Guard to mediate the business dispute on behalf of the railroad workers the government does step in to put down the workers and this leads to the first labor union because no one is looking out for the workers *done before any unions were formed Writing assignment #1 Due February 2, 2016 upload on blacboard Look at political cartoonthink about the opinion towards Carnegie and what does it mean to workers What workers would have said about it how they would have responded? What thinkers of social Darwinism would have thought about it Read Carnegie’s gospel of wealththink about relationship with workers and owners Website is just for your think Use cartoon and article in the essay (refer to what page you got it from) 23 pages double spaced 5% of grade You don’t have to cite lecture notes or the book View rubric by clicking on the link Go over guidelines History 112 January 28, 2016 Labor in the Long Depression Looming questions- from the workers perspective 1. Is upward mobility possible in the Gilded Age? -no, its either if you are fit or not fit (social Darwinism way of thinking) -they is not a way to come from the bottom and go to the top (Carnegie is the only exception) -its really difficult to be a worker during this era 2. Is the American dream a myth? 3. What, if anything, do workers owe each other? -business owners think they don’t owe the workers anything Review of European Socialism in the late 19 century *During this time there is not a big difference between socialism and communism Karl Marx- communist manifesto (1848); Fredrick Engels; economics are the basis of human conflict Proletariat (workers- hold no power) and bourgeoisie (owners- holds all of the power)- who owns the means of production? Socialism, communism, anarchy- competing visions within Marxist th circles at the end of the 19 century; will eventually separate out nd Ideas brought to labor circles in the US as a result of 2 Industrial Revolution Fundamentally at odds with ideas of classical liberalism lassie-faire economics Laisse faire- is what drives society forward and the government works best when it is small, which is better for competition Karl Marx thinks: -At the bottom of every single conflict is the power struggle between the workers and the owners -Society can’t move forward until society has an equalized power and resources Socialism -believe that the current capitalist structure can be kept in place and the govt can keep the peace between the owners and Communism – the overthrow of the government and implement a new government structure Both agree that a larger govt is necessary to protect the power of the workers from the bourgeoisie Anarchist- reject idea of a govt structure and looking for a fair relationship between workers and owners, think that a govt is oppressive to the people, advocate free association for people to run for political positions Goal of all of these are drastically different from the laisse faire system Knights of Labor 1870-1880s Lead by: Terrence Powderly (grand master work man) -Membership boosts after railroad strikes of 1877 -Incredibly inclusive (radical)-represent skilled and unskilled workers, black workers, supports equal rights for women *if you are a worker regardless of sex race origin (extremely radical) you can be a part of this movement which is unheard of in this time period , and what ultimately leads to its downfall Plagued by inner tension -anarchist -tension between skilled and unskilled workers Downfall occurs after Haymarket affair -is what leads to the downfall of the knights of labor -began may 3 1886 in Chicago in Haymarket square -laborers were beginning to go on strike and at the rally and the police show out and the police wounded several man and some killed -people plan a rally the next day and tell the people what the police did and advocate an 8 hour work week, and a lot of uncertainty about the police and what they are going to do -Samuel Filden and police orders the rally people to leave and someone threw a dynamite bomb at the police, wounded and 7 killed some police and the rally people -don’t know the causalities of the workers -Dynamite will kill everything around it – it equalized its victims - police arrest 8 prominent anarchist and even though there was no evidence that tied them to the dynamite bomb they were tried and the jury named them guilty after 3 hours and 7 is hanged and 1 is sent to 15 years, 4 committed suicide Aftermath Anti-immigrant sentiment overpowers “innocent until proven guilty” What was on trial? Murder of social order? Downfall of knights of labor- they are blamed for violence but did not have anything to do it “if they haven’t talked about all of these issues in the first place it would have never happened” Media shaped news coverage- spectacle in Chicago Knights of labor replaced by: American Federation of Labor -represents skilled male workers only Higher in the anarchy and not easily replaceable, mostly white Not nearly as inclusive as the knights of labor 1886-present Ran by Samuel Gompers Immediate objectives “Bread and butter unionism -Advocate a living wage -pay ought to pay for the basic needs to live -advocate 8 hour work day -not going to have radical workers involved and stay away the thinking of Marxism *During this time there is a lot of strikes happening and difficult for workers to meet ends meet Pullman Strike of 1894 -wages decrease 25% but not company- he doesn’t cut rent, owned housing units (south of Chicago)- if you work for him you have to live in the facility -3,000 Pullman workers on strike; others stop moving railcars (carrying mail) -American Railroad Union and Eugene V. Debs He runs for president as a socialist Pullman workers reach out the Eugene and he sympathizes and gets involved Will go to jail for 6 months for tampering with US mail -Eventually 50,000 men walk off the job Federal government becomes involved and the courts -Atty Gen. uses injunction to call federal troops to break the strike; violent confrontations between soldiers and workers By the end of 1890 the supreme court decides that mandating where your workers live is not acceptable and close down the Pullman community
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