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ANTH 320 Week 4 Notes

by: Hadley Ashford

ANTH 320 Week 4 Notes ANTH 320

Hadley Ashford
GPA 3.776

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About this Document

These notes cover 2/2/16-2/4/16. Issues discussed include: documentary and Farmer readings
Anthropology of Development
R. Colloredo-Mansfeld
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hadley Ashford on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 320 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by R. Colloredo-Mansfeld in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Anthropology of Development in ANTH at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.


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Date Created: 02/04/16
ANTH 320 Notes 2/2/16-2/4/16 2/2/16 - Multiple choice questions on test drawn from key terms on lecture slides and word doc from forums (some also from movies watched) o Word doc directly copied, so don’t take everything face-value  Analyze each one and make sure they’re right! Documentary Notes - Setting: Yala Swamp, Kenya o “worst place in Africa” considering poverty, lack of education, and unfreedoms - Jackson wanted to grow heard from 400 livestock to 500 because that is main source of livelihood and can produce more/have more income that way - Dominion Farms invested $26 billion into Kenyan rice farms o Wanted best technology/practices, use modern techniques o Promises much development: clean water, income from rice with increased production, better schools, etc.  Jackson says it hasn’t happened yet o Works without consent of local people o Development unwanted by community because not receiving promised benefits - Development only helpful if it is wanted - Necessary to cooperate with local communities o Flooded fields where local crops had already been planted  Ruined crops  less income  deeper poverty - Flooding forces local people to change careers from herding to fishing - Stagnant water from reservoir not healthy drinking water o Not clean o Breeding group for mosquitoes o Greater risk of disease - Dominion views local desire to stay stagnant in current economic/social situation as bad o Wants to force them to change mindset and practices to fit Western values - Jackson had own plan for development, but now ruined because Dominion plan doesn’t work and took away previous career path - Much of destruction caused by careless Dominion practices o Spraying of chemicals kills livestock o Contaminates drinking water o Possibly caused pregnancy complications - Wanted peace before Dominion came, but locals weren’t respected so want to fight back - Communities more poor and impoverished than before Dominion - Already had freedom to own land, development projects meant to grant freedoms took that away by flooding the land Discussion - Area called a “swamp” by government, so justified displacement of people o Language matters - Known that dams cause destruction, so Dominion knew that they might possibly displace these people - Rice production to benefit city/urban economy of Kenya - Government agrees to sell out own people because: o Ends justify means  Rice produced from Dominion farms will benefit cities so much that displacement of a few people isn’t seen as important o Support Westernization of nation o Want overall prosperity of country, more people benefit in the cities than in rural areas 2/4/16 - Alternatives to expensive neo-natal intensive care units: o Greater access to pre-natal care o Treat infections in mothers o Educate mothers, provide nutritional support - $20 million to spend: o Could implement UICU and save 15 babies o Could implement above public health outreach and save 20 babies, but some may die because lack of NICU - Paul Farmer: doctor in anthropology, medical doctor in Haiti o Notices connection between health and disease and social relations/power - Treating TB in impoverished communities o Strand of multiple-drug resistant TB  Lengthier and more expensive treatment  Much investment necessary in treatment to follow through to end of treatment o Language/cultural barriers, stigma, different ideas of causes of disease, different values/beliefs o Stigma can discourage people from seeking treatment o Socioeconomic factors related to poverty make treatment difficult  Income, housing, nutrition - TB in Haiti o Difficult to access treatment o Infrastructure makes it difficult to sustain treatment o Different explanations of causes  Sorcery, magic o Failure of treatment usually most likely outcome - Luddite trap: give poor communities second-rate treatment and keep high quality treatment for wealthy societies/people o If you shift healthcare dollars from NICU treatment to public health/prevention  Because there are many costs and difficulties to sustain first class treatment o Then, end up advocating inexpensive, second-rate care for poor communities (low resource)  Cost-effectiveness rations healthcare, best medicine still reserved for wealthy elite - Anthropology and cultural relativism are part of Luddite trap problem: 1. Recognize and respect cultural differences a. Harmless in itself, one of core values of anthropologists/cultural relativists 2. Heath problems then become associated with cultural practices a. Ex. cuisine, appearance, housing/environment, cultural habits b. Know that certain cultural practices are harmful, but don’t address them out of respect for culture 3. Accept fact that cultural differences create limits on intervention a. Idea that there is nothing to be done simply because they have a different way of life 4. Absence of modern technology in community justifies not using modern technology there out of respect for culture - Above referred to as “spineless relativism” and “flabby moral relativism” - Farmer values patient stories over ethnography o But sometimes careful ethnography can show strengths and weaknesses - Liberation theology: Latin American Catholic theological movement o Bible/religion can only be understood by poor and suffering o Purpose of church is to give service to poor  “preferential option for the poor” o Farmer focuses on application of this belief system in medicine - Application of liberation theology in medicine: 1. Observe a. Honestly/explicitly describe conditions of poor b. Connect conditions and causes c. Call it like it is, don’t mince words 2. Judge a. Raise consciousness- bring to forefront of discussion i. Notice that people share problems and social structure can cause suffering b. Poverty is a relationship c. Commit to findings/truth 3. Act a. Praxis: act on ideas even if it can’t be articulated i. Have to really listen/understand poor ii. Then MUST act on findings - Reject cultural respect and recognize what actually needs to be done to relieve suffering


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