Sponsored and Contested Mobility
Sponsored and Contested Mobility SOC1060
Popular in Freshman Seminar: Sociology of Education
verified elite notetaker
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verified elite notetaker
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Notetaker on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOC1060 at University of Cincinnati taught by Professor Kalasia Daniels in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Freshman Seminar: Sociology of Education in Sociology at University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 02/04/16
Sponsored and Contested Mobility -Social norm: common rules of a culture that govern the behavior of people belonging to it Ex: what we should or should not do -Social mobility: The movement of individuals and groups between different class positions due to changes in wealth, occupation, or income -urner argues that different social norms about upward mobility in U.S. and England lead to different types of school systems -Sponsored mobility: Established elites choose elite recruits and elite status is given on the basis of some criterion. You have to be “sponsored” or “supported” in order to become elite Maintain Control: elites are more competent and deserve it (859) -Contested mobility: Elite status is the prize that individuals compete for based on their own effort. It is governed by rules of fair play (equal playing field, there are many strategies you can use, and prize of elite status is not controlled Maintain control: develop a norm of ambition among elites (859). Long Shadow, ch. 1 and 2 -What is the Long Shadow? -The long shadow is family background, resources, and relationships Goes against “maker of our own fortune” ideal (1). -What is the purpose of this book? -To look at life outcomes and development of disadvantaged youth, ex: both black and white Students’ successes and failures -What are they studying? -Educational Environment: schools, neighborhoods, and families All contexts impact students’ life outcomes School Context School: Baltimore City Schools- majority Low income 1960: School system flipped from White to Black (29). -1980s: Pop: 119000 44% low-income enrollment, 17% special education services 75% Black, segregated by race -2010s: Pop: 84,000 84% low-income enrollment, 16% special education service 97% majority Black schools, 79% of Black students attend hyper- segregated schools= Black enrollment > 90% Neighborhood context -Baltimore City -1950s -pop. 1 million + -2/3 of Baltimore residents were white Migration of Whites from rural south and Appalachian belt -Manufacturing jobs sky-rocketed (HS degree or less) Le Bethlehem Steel complex -Split Labor market Whites given skilled well-benefit unionized manufacturing jobs -Baltimore City -1990s-2000s -pop. 620,000 -only 13% white -Manufacturing jobs declined -Economy changes from manufacturing jobs to service and technology based economy Family -Urban disadvantaged: poorest part of the neighborhoods (2). Roughly 20-40% residents are poor or jobless 25-35% earned over $35,000 Whites and Blacks both living in poverty (9). -Both Black and White families with some educational attainment 20-27% attended college Reyes and Rodriquez article -Key terms in understanding school finance -Revenues: dollars generated Federal, state, and local -Equalization policies: redistributes state funds to make money generated for property tax more equitable -Full-state funding: little or no $ generated locally -District revenues: $ distributed to school districts based on average daily attendance (ADA). -District power equalization/guaranteed tax base -Guaranteed: state will help raise $ generated from property tax revenues even when local communities cannot -Yield, asks for citizens to be taxed more -Categorical programs Entitlements: $ follow students Competitive programs: schools apply for money -Darden article -Establishment clause vs free exercise Establishment clause used to keep religion out of schools (schools being government agencies) First Amendment Free exercise Clause/ free speech combination -Rulings by federal courts have been contradictory -Johnson v Poway (T eacher vs. School system) eacher displayed religious sayings on walls Ruled against Johnson -Busch V. Maple Newton School District (parent vs. School system) Parent read bible passages during show-and-tell Ruled in favor of Busch
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