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Week 1 notes

by: Elisa Merten

Week 1 notes POLS1130

Elisa Merten
Brown U

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About this Document

These notes cover the Iowa Caucus and begin to touch on the presidential powers in relation to Congress
The American Presidency
Richard Arenberg
Class Notes
president, political science, US Government
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elisa Merten on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLS1130 at Brown University taught by Richard Arenberg in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see The American Presidency in Political Science at Brown University.

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Date Created: 02/04/16
Feb 2 nd TWIW/Campaign  Republican Iowa Caucus o Cruz, Trump then Rubio o Cruz wins with 28% o Broke record for turnout/votes o Rubio  winner?  He exceeded expectations and polling  Won establishment vote  Other establishment candidates have focused on NH o Trump  loser  Didn’t do as well as polled  Gracious, congratulated other candidates, “loves Iowa”  New Hampshire o Look for establishment vote  Democrat Iowa Caucus o Clinton gets 22, Sanders 21 (delegates for national convention)  Need better than 2,383 delegates o Very close race between Bernie and Clinton o Clinton’s firewall  713 super delegates  15% of the convention  they are overwhelmingly for Clinton  unlike Obama-Clinton race  has more African American support, minority support  Clinton Emails o 22 emails are now classified as Top Secret o over classification in executive branch is a serious matter o jeopardizes national security and corrodes democratic gov’t Presidential Powers and the Constitution  Executive power in Article 2 of Constitution o very vague, gives current presidents a lot of power  different than article 1  legislative branch is well defined with lots of rules o new technology, weapons and diplomacy needs a head of the executive branch to make a quick action, cannot rely on slower legislative branch o “Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy”  gives lots of power to president  doesn’t need approval from congress o “laws be faithfully executed” o constitution frames the role of the president  During elections we forget about the constraints for president action o Cannot be all powerful with legislative branch o The promises cannot be kept due to other branches o “Day one promises”  Can not happen due to legislative powers  Romney repeal ObamaCare  will take at least a year  Barriers o Congress o Judicial Branch  Ie: ObamaCare, executive actions o “Separation of Powers” o Federalism  Certain powers are given to the states  Functions better led by fed gov’t o Natural disasters  Support cost, bring in national guard  State of the Union o Occurs in January o Annually report to congress o Since Woodrow Wilson state of the union has been spoken o Typically first one gets the largest audience  Unless it coincides with something big  Clinton, bush  Formal powers o Ambassadors o Appointments to federal offices and judiciary o Negotiate treaties o Make recess appointments  Due to long vacancies in history when travel took months  Cannot happen during pro-forma sessions when congress is not in recess o Pardon federal offenses Feb 4 th TWIW/Campaign  New Hampshire o Importance in establishment vote/lane o Rubio will try to push out the other establishment candidates o If not could be a two person race between just Cruz and Trump  Annual Budget Request (next tues) o This starts the process that passes the budget o Should end prior to September 30 o Congress has power of the purse not the President o Congress does not have to pass the budget  With divided gov’t Congress holds the card  Causes shutdowns  Normally titled dead on arrival  However the President still has power  Bully Pulpit o Executive branch develops budget for most of the year  Federal agencies send their budgets to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB)  OMB controls the money of the other federal agencies  Republicans try to push down the budget, Democrats are a little more lenient o Federal gov’t spends, taxes/revenues, DEFICIT (most important numbers)  Can change numbers with different projections of GDP o Budget is for 10 years  Outer years are almost always wrong  Still do it to see long term effects of budget  Next years budget is the only one that matters  b/c there is a new budget every year Presidential Powers & Constitution  Informal powers o Executive orders  directives by the president that have the power of a law  Published in the federal registry  Do not require Congressional action  Can be revoked by the courts or Congress  Not executive actions  Set policy for the executive branch, not law power  Not executive memorandum  legally binding directives by the president to the executive branch, same force as actions o Signing statements  refer to a written comment issued by the president when he signs a bill into law  Merely comments regarding the reasons that he supports law  May comment on parts of bills being unconstitutional and not going to enact them  Bush used a lot  Sent messages to agency officials as to how to enact the laws and if they would be enacted o Executive privilege o Power to persuade (Bully Pulpit)  make deals with congress  cultivate media  influence the public  Constraints o Impeachment  Congress can remove the President  House votes articles of impeachment and the Senate acquits or convicts  Senate holds the trial with chief justice as presiding officer o Veto Override  Congress can override veto with a 2/3 vote in each chamber o Term limits (22 ndamendment) o Inherited bureaucratic structure  Many bureaucrats are career bureaucrats  President has to work with them President & Congress: Unified/Divided Government  Unified Gov’t  both houses are the same party as the president  “advice and consent”  power of the congress to advice and consent o as to treaties, nominations ect…  voting unified or divided o a national vote is different than voting district by district or by states o gerrymandering/encumbancing cause huge republican numbers o not usually voting for divided govt it just happens  when senate is 50-50  vp casts deciding vote o bush win against gore caused this o because its 50-50 democrats wanted a power sharing agreement o democrats had the filibuster power o took a really long time to organize the senate


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