History 112 Week 4
History 112 Week 4 History 112
Popular in American History Since 1865
Popular in History
This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sequoia Brown on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 112 at University of South Carolina taught by Foxworth in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see American History Since 1865 in History at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 02/04/16
History 112 February 4, 2016 Start of Midterm #2 Progressive Era - Of, relating to , or characterized by progress - Making use of or interest in new ideas, findings or opportunities - Gradual betterment, especially; the progressive development of humankind Regression - Movement backward to a previous and especially worse or more primitive state of condition Progressive Era o Woman do not have the right to vote - Primarily a middle class movement (25% of the world not the 1%) - Advocate government activism to mitigate problems cause by urban industrialism o In contrast to laisse faire- they want the government to help - Fear of social upheaval o During this time there is more workers than owners and owners were afraid of rebellion Moving along in time to the new century Main ideas (you can be a Progressive if you believe in: - Social Gospel movement (social justice movement) o its your Christian duty to advocate for government reform) - Reform Darwinism o The responsibility of the government to solve social problems- progress happens when you leave people alone o A challenge to social Darwinism and lassiez-faire o Has to do with how society evolve but individuals can use their intellect to use government reform to speed up evolutionary process o Government’s job to solve social problems - Utilized scientific findings of experts - Reestablish the status quo of the middle class *you can be a progressive solely from your religious believes *you can be a progressive solely if you believe in reform Darwinism Era of Professionalization - starting to have standards about surgical education o sanitation, standards Settlement Houses and Relief from slums Progressives agree that urban poverty is a huge problem - bridge divisions between rich and poor - improve sanitary conditions of the poor - settlement houses for immigrants and African American o settlement houses were mainly for immigrants because they were the ones that needed them the most Hull House in Chicago 1889 - founded by Jane Addams - first settlement house in Chicago - helped and worked particularly Eastern European immigrants o helped them transition o settlement houses are more of a recreational center - offered day care, libraries, classes, employment bureau - after several years, it grew to include a gymnasium, pool space for trade unions and co - Hull house woman convinced the government to pass child labor laws and educational laws o Woman of the hull house sphere headed the first juvenile court *Change is happening her for the Hull house and they are really sincere about what they are doing * if you think about woman class roles of this time period and this sphere is different of the norm – but they justify it because they were helping people in need (radical thing) Muller V Oregon (major court case that involves child labor) - State of Oregon had a law about you couldn’t work more than 10 hours a day - Muller is brought up on charges because a woman that worked for him worked over that - He goes to court and loses and had to pay $10 - Went to the supreme court because of the state law that intentionally named woman o 1 court case to utilized scientific evidence, psychological evidence - Men of this time think woman should not work over 10 hours a day because it would endanger the whole human race because woman have to protect their ovaries o Results: Brandeis Brief (1908) –advocates that woman should have special laws, and woman are physically different than men o Things the government should protect woman that can’t speak up for themselves o Still again, history discloses the fact that woman has always dependent upon man o “must shield the uterus” Progressive Reforms After Muller v Oregon st - 1 set of safety regulation - Worker safety after Triangle Shirtwaist Fire - Social purity campaigns (more middle class tenge) o : *opposing prostitution (most important), liquor, unjust social conditions, the lack of knowledge and the absence of high ideals in the mind other ‘vices’ o Woman advocate to outlaw liquor from which in ways that impact their lives and not the help of the man, only what it makes the man do to the family leads to violence to woman - Social Hygiene and Sex education o They want to protect the pure life of the ‘woman’ and make them become aware of venereal diseases Birth Control Movement Margaret Sanger sphere headed the birth control movement o A nurse and advocate for condoms, ect - Comstock act passed in 1873- prohibit the trade of obscene literature and articles of immoral use - Sanger believes that condoms and diaphragms and surgical caps and that the Comstock act is wrong o Most woman are having babies if they want to or not because they do not have control over their bodies o Abortion is at a rise during this time period - Wants as a nurse for condoms and diaphragm’s to be legal so woman can choice to become pregnant when the want to and to prevent abortions - Opens up first Clinic on Birth Control, located in Jewish and Italian immigrant neighborhood o After 10 days of opening she was thrown in jail o The state of NY 1918 was condoms allowed for only married woman to prevent the spread of venereal disease Pure Food and Drugs Upton, Sinclair, The Jungle 1906 Upton Sinclair- muck racker (very powerful in how they get people to notice issues) - wrote for the people so they can talk and implement government reform - it takes the publication of his book for the people to want a change o leads directly to Pure food and Drug act of 1906 o first sign of regulation for food and the meat packing industry History 112 February 2, 2016 Dissent in the Gilded Age Currency - Before Civil War, currency printed locally with wide variance and high rate of counterfeit - After the civil war currency became a problem Greenbacks as solution for Civil War expenses- issued by federal government; also used in the South (printed by states and highly devalued over time) Greenbacks at first didn’t have a solid gold backing- no one really knows what they are worth Creditors were highly suspect of greenbacks Lead to inflation, because they are widely available Things cost more because there are more dollars available - Currency is unstable –Currency crisis - Gold and silver are mentioned in the constitution > legit in America Free Silver bonanza (finding silver more easily than gold but not as valuable as gold but its better than nothing) of mid 19 century (same as the gold rush) leads to “the Crime of 73’ and eradication of bimetallism - People in the West finds success with silver from 1850-1870 - Miners in the West find more silver than gold - As more silver makes it way into economy it will start to loose value - Its not as precious as a commodity anymore - Silver prices will start to fall – which leads to the crime of 73 o Tied in with the long depression Crime of 73 Republicans in congress will vote to stop mining silver because it is unstable Stopped being used as currency in 1873 and demonetized People calling it a crime was not the Republicans but the once who like silver called it a crime to stop making it, and Democratics were pro silver 1873- panic and the long depression Workers wages being cut and they had a better chance to get silver than gold And after silver was demonetized they had a hard time of making ends meet Crime of 73 were the start of the debates that come along After crime of 73 the economy is based on what ever gold is worth Green back Labor Party, 1870s, supports supplementing gold with silver, -will support using silver and gold and paper money -think people can get access to dollars and silver -they want bimetallism and the greenback to mean something -elects 14 members to congress - Republican: think greenbacks are dangerous and think they hold back society After crime of 73 greenbacks in office then come the: Congress; 1875 Specie Resumption Act - trade in greenbacks for gold coins-get more gold coins in the hands of people that need them Congress 1878 Bland Allison Act - silver once again currency - insures that the government would accept silver - greenbacks have more creditable, more accepted , less dangerous By the end of the 1870 the economy is getting better Which Currency? Republicans- support gold coins, people who are invested in the Gilded Age (business) Bankers- supports gold want a currency that doesn’t lead to inflation, want a currency that is stable Famers- pro silver, anti big banks - Pro Gold standard: Eastern Bankers (think J.P. Morgan), other creditors, Pro-Business Republicans involved in ‘Crime of 73’ - Pro- Silver: famers from south and west, miners and laborers, greenback labor party, farmers alliance Farmer’s Alliance Largest citizen movement in the late 19 century 6.4 million farms by the start of the 20 century- in a real transition bc of technology related to agriculture Rose in the line of the debates Starts in Texas late 1870’s and will spread to the south and west Farmers in high debt Critical of banking system (anti big banks) -thinks that the bank is out to get them -appose bankers American political system not looking out for the interests of farmers- especially after Long Depression What did they want? - Farmers Alliance is RADICAL - Improving rural conditions by cooperative financing and marking of crops - Wanting to as communities to share and sell crops to not have to compete with each other - Radical request > want the federal government to establish a warehouse for crop storage: “sub treasury Plan” o Wanted the federal government to control the supply and demand which is the sub treasury plan o The government would use crops as collateral so the farmers could get loans o Don’t like the banks so they want the government to control it instead of the banks o “we hate the banks so work around them” o Non-partisan- don’t support political parties - Educated members through literature, lectures with information about politicians, policies, tariffs, credit, and currency issues Populist Party -grew out of the Farmer’s Alliance -Dissatisfied with Republicans and Democrats *Omaha Platform 1892; Alaska - Critized Gilded Age corruption and economic inequality - Critized the banks and railroads - Demanded graduated income tax, free ballot, election of legislators by direct vote, government ownership of railroads - Would want silver back in the economic - Other demands; reasonable credit rates, currency reform (want silver back), labor changes (8 hr work days), sub treasury How successful do they become? 1892- high tide of the electoral votes for the Populist Party > get 22 electoral votes *Grover Cleveland took away silver for good (Democrat) in 1892 Election of 1896 Established Populist party Republican candidate - William Mckinley Democratic/ people’s candidate - William Jennings Bryan (favorable candidate bc wants to bring back silver) -commitment to free silver -free silver as fusion despite friction -known for use of strong religious imagery (sac religious candidate) Democratic National Convention 1896; Cross of Gold Speech Top 10 speech “You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns (the gold standard). You shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of Gold” > Saying: The gold standard is making people suffer much like Jesus suffered -crucified after speech for comparing gold with Jesus - William McKinley raised twice as much money as before because people don’t want William Jennings Bryan is so controversial and do not want him to become elected *Williams Jennings Bryan loses Populism fades after farm prices began to rise in 1897 Women’s Suffrage- Concerns 1848- Seneca Falls Convention *Declaration of Sentiments- based on Declaration of Independence Women mobilized in 1848 with being able to talk about woman rights 14 Amendments and 15 disagreements produce two factions of suffragists during Reconstruction - Woman want them to include sex - Other people want former slaves to be able to vote Susan B. Anthony protest disenfranchisement at the polls- arrested for civil disobedience, fined $100 and she vowed never to pay it 1875 Minor v Happersett- a woman wanted to become a lawyer Western states grant women rights to vote starting in 1890 -Wyoming, Idaho ect happening on the local level in the West
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