Prin Environmental Planning
Prin Environmental Planning
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Date Created: 03/11/14
For Midterm 2 nothing on 00 no history questions Bartuska scale Chap l trends and issues Chap 4 org of gov lafco types of decisions Chap 6 general plans Chap 7 zoning 2 zoning ppt presentations Elliott Euclidean zoning Hypothetical gpnreal planzconsistency basic components of a zoning ordinance Saving the world thru zoning major part of article create a sustainable code remove obstacles creating incentives enacting standards Randolph chap l5 goes with ppt NO GOD8CllALK D ANDERSOlll20l2 lAlheeler Santa Monica Chap l8 Fulton p 353 Santa Monica leaders of sus in the US report card GHQ biggest sources elec consump 82 vehicle miles traveled History of Sus many roots Sustainability in Planning What doesnt planning improve sus short sighted excessive fragmentation of roles focus on minutiae too legalistic reactive rather than proactive no common goals with other professions How Green is your city yay SF is 2 order portland st seattle chicago ny Sustainability and Local Planning if general plan does not have the word sus does not mean that the plan is not sustainable too much sus bad city of Arcata general plan it you are going to define sustainability be sure to include economy equity and env City of santa Monica lndicators look at slide tied into their sustainable city plan human dignity parking lot runoff goes into the ground cool Santa Monica Office of Sustainability research on SOD and indicator program Report Card Randolph Chapter 2 Environmental Planning for Sustainability Can planning help move society to greater sustainability What is planning applies the process of planning to env protection and prob solving figuring out what to do and how to do it created prob solving applying knowledge to action ppl try to deal with env issues but dont kno the complexity of it env planner is like a referee trying to protect env from ppl and trying to protect ppl from env nature bats last lex build on a fault line bye bye Evolution of Planning in the US profession started bc of designers represents a new group of professionals to be added to the profession regulation zoning lW i ael start of serious application and design engineers and lawyers added Applied science have to quantify everything politics ppl started understanding they had the power to make a difference ppl from P9 come in communication idea of informing public about issues collaboration getting ppl around the table and addressing an issue together integrating got innovation bc ppl got more optimistic planning sus 82 living comm integrating into a comprehensive approach to dealing with env issues The community sus prism shows complexity of sus bc of so many forces gt creates tension important word Conflict in addition to conflicts under Daniels readings growth mgmt conflict livability and unmanaged ecnomic growth green cities conflict livability and ecology and gentrification conflict livability and equity challenge of env 82 urban planning is to seek common solutions that provide multiple benefits for the 4 objectives and avoid conflict btwn them Approaches to env planning reactive do something after the fact correct prior env damages ex out up subdivision in the flood plane bad have to react to rising water levels proactive anticipate what impacts will possibly be or encourage the direction the city is going towards sacramento take pieces of undev land and prepare plans for those sites go thru process to get approved can also be incentives dev want to do something want to protect agricultural land so willing to give up something Davis for everg acre of ag land dev theg have to secure the protection of agric land thats unprotected integrative both earlg 82 substantive consideration of env social and contingencg factors in the formulation of dec plans and projects essential to achieve the multiple objectives of sustainable dev less costlg and more effective Classic Approaches to Env Planning rationa o o rehensive planning scientific method 39o ves info alternatives impact assessment and evalu a incremental planning science of muddling thru focuses on shortte als as oectives and small sequential actions aka adaptive planning learn bg doing develop 0 within I 39 implement plan monitor results make changes based on monitoring participatory planning deals with the diverse stake 9 er perspectives and conflicting values inform and involve th ulic in planning and decision making Advocacy Pl mg repres mg the underrepresented lex advocate affordable housing eholders represent special interests often requires advocacg from an underrepresented group 82 values 82 mediation to resolve differences Th 39 anning Process I simplified process I v e what do we have needs assessment what 2 e o os mgmt strategies plans and programs What shud we do and implementation and mom o 2 es scoping identi cation of is 2 mo unities concerns objective 39 2 39 82 uncertainties analgsis of planning situation formulation of altern 0 assessment of impacts evaluation 82 selection of plan implementation monr ori ee 39mlementation evaluation modi cation adaptive Interdisciplinary Aspects of Env planning En science and engineering achr ing sus requires understanding of how natural sgstems work and how designed sgstems and t 39 nologies can lessen the adverse imp s of the built env env economics le rnalities planners need to unders d basic microecon econ efficiencg costeffectiveness v elfare econ and market failure market externalities goods or o ages that flow from the market to individ s or firms whether theg want them or not env evaluation lseqa an objective assessment to assign values to opti compare trade s resolve conflicts and make choices costbenefit analgsis cost 82 benefits the can be asure estimated in dollar terms ecological econ econ valuation of env resources so in can be better accounted for in costbenefit analgsis market mechanisms tool to advance env protec n exmissio ap and trade programs env design the purpose of enhancing envqualit 39 uman health livabilitg 82 overall sus env politics participation collabor ion conflict resolution conflict resolutio ow hanging fruit leasg stuff can be done build momentum into the harder issu env law enco asses those legal principles and prescripts that have been used thru thejudicial sgstem to protect hum health and env qualitg police power to regulate private activities to protect pub health and welfare Role of the Planner list and how it works remind us how interdisciplinarg planning is planner as technician analgst information source planners have to take census data and convert it into a planning document dictates where comm is going how pop changing teams of planners work together as a team planner as facilitator of public involvement when gou have success it feels good collaborative env planning engagement of citizens and other stakeholders planner as a regulator planner as a negotiator mediator planner as a political advisor as politician planner as designer as visionarg larchitects we are about the future planner as advocate lurban agriculture and public health Almost every issue related to climate change has a connection to how we use the land including resource extraction land use and climate change mitiqate and adapt what planning is all about balancing both recently has been more adaptation than mitigation SF airport is right next to the water what shud we do to adapt to rising water levels climate action plans Daniels reading a trail across time read randolphs summarg on arrows Ebenezer Howard Garden Citg design redesigned cities to be inharmong with nature quotecocitiesquot NEDA enhanced scienti c analgsis in env planning birth of modern planning legislation comes into plag present area of sus citg beautiful mvmt did not take off until after the Chicago fair Agenda 2lers ppl who go to planning meetings and protest against planning present should be coming to a close gt our generation is responsible for the next column 3 potential conflicts in comm planning propertg conflict leconomic growth 82 equitable distrib of opportunities resource conflict leconomic dev and env values development conflict lequitg and env Context and Organization of planning Introduction interdisciplinary profession local planning commission or city council have power over the zone change or the building permit local gov constitutes the main event in CA land planning cities 82 counties create and administer and use regs may make and enforce within its limits all local police sanitary and other ordinances and regs not in conflict with general laws Chapter 4 of Fulton if located inside city you are located in incorp area incorporated city has an appointed body planning commission if in county you get permits from county cities havejurisdiction overland inside their borders and counties control the rest aka unincorp territory if land gets incorporated then tax revenues change from going to county to the city counties are creatures of the state cities are not created by local citizens to serve their own purpose LAFCO local agency formation commission draw all local gov boundaries in CA lafco reform law requires all cities and special districts to help fund LAFCO created distance btwn counties and LAFCO no more financial dependence on counties specifically charged with creating orderly local boundaries in order to maximize sprawl they act on annexation to city creation of special districts modern day settlement unit created by state legislature to create a mechanism to protect agricultural land Sphere of influence urban growth boundary must be approved by LAFCO unincorporated area in the outer circle Fulton pg 81 chart 3 categories For local decisions legislative general policy decisions creating policy general policy revisions zoning ordinances approved adopted by city council subJ39ect to initiative 82 referendum quasijudicial apply legislative policy to indiv dev projects applying discretionary policy to indiv projects approved declined by planning commission appeals decided by city council not subject to initiative 82 referendum Ministerial exempt from env review under CEQA applging nondiscretionarg policg to indiv projects building permit other permit approved bg stall not subject to initiative and referendum basic characteristics of planning future oriented continuous determination of facts lresponsible for data comprehensive coordination Major players and the planning process see whose responsible for what there shud be an X where citizens are in the implementation row Collaborative planning know bullets Saving the World through ZoningReading zoning is not going away some details sar here and then branch out CEQA is not planning vehicle used 0 enhance planning one of he m0s imp0ran laws provides a framework for bringing env ino he planning process What is CEQA requires state local and other agencies 0 evaluae he env implications of their actions preven env aFFecs it agency actions by requiring agencies 0 avoid or reduce he sig env impact sae law CEQA Objectives look at slide a reminder as 0 why CEQA exis relae 0 ulon chap 9 diff wording bu are they same l disclose env impacts 2 identify and prevent env damage 3 disclose agency decision making findings lsaemen of fact ha support a decision overriding still must disclose why council made ha decision 4 enhance public participation scoping public meeting 0 see what should go ino Env report 5 foster intergovernmental coordination CEQA authorizes agencies to require changes in a project 0 mitigate or avoid sig eFFecs disapprove a proj 0 avoid sig e ecs approve a proj w unavoidable sig effects it projects benei ouvveigh those effects comment on CEQA docs prepared by other agencies impose fees from project applicants for CEQA implementation Participants Lead Agency makes final decisions on projects usually the city or county agencies wjurisdiction concerned residents w orgs ex env defense center 82 ciizen planning ass0ciai0n env consultants proi applicants le applications ha are subject 0 env review can be a gov agency reactive action countg is waiting for responding to env reviews trustee agencies responsible agencies supplementarg to lead agencg responsible for a particular aspect lex armg corps of engineers courts Section 2 3 Phase ProcessPreliminary Review Overview of CEQA Process Phase l preliminary review determine if proposal is a project bg definition or not Phase 2 initial study do initial analgsis bg asking questions out of 6 categories if it answers ang questions negativelg must do an Env Report Phase 3 EN2 or Neg Declaration N 0 Screening for CEQA Applicability freewag to an EH2 basic understanding questions if answer is ges it is off the freewag statutorg exemption based on past practice this project does not have sig env impact categorical categorg that does not normallg have a sig env impact Project prof action that results in a phgsical change in the env an activitg directlg undertaken bg a public agencg Purposes of the Initial Study decide whether to prepare an EIR avoid unnecessarg ElRs thru mitigation focusing the EIR on sig effects facilitate earlg env assessment support llDs and lVlllDs Foster reuse of Ell2s identifg whether a program Ell392 tiering or similar process can be used Types of Env Impacts direct effects reasonablg foreseeable indirect effects growthinducing effects dev project makes a water line thru agriculture land to connect to citg cumulative effects Agriculture Resources ex of questions on env review naked checklist never gave a reason whg theg marked quotno impactquot wag gou respond to questions is verg important mag have to go back to it when conduct ER Environmental Impacts in Appendix 6 air qualitg cultural resources historical monuments middens noise pop and housing recreation Signi cance of Impacts Threshold of Signi cance table if above the line than project will have a sig impact if gou can mitigate below the line then gou are safe Required content of an initial study project description env setting potential env impacts mitigation measures for ang signi cant effect consistencg with plans and policies names of prepares bring ppl who prepared initial studg Negative Declaration required contents of nd and mnd proposed nding of no sig effect nd no mitigation bc there is not impact mnd mitigation measures included EIR Purposes the heart of CEQA Types of EIRs dont have to know Tiering theg are cumulative l general plan 2 community 3 Dev Project Required Contents of Draft EIR alt to design of projects mitigation measures growthinducing impacts how a project can directlg or indirectlg foster other growth cumulative impact analgsis Cumulative Impacts EH2 should have a chapter devoted to cumulative impacts main purpose to make sure that a comm does not approve a series of small projects without considering the overall effect of these actions on the env must address past present and probablg future projects Factors to consider location of other projects jurisdiction of other projects tgpes of other projects size of other projects Statement of Overriding Considerations balancing env damage against social economic and other factors citg is not required to deng a project if it does have an sig env effect must develop a set of findings to override considerations Communication transition from decision arena to the ground What is a mitigation measure avoid minimize rectify reduce or eliminate compensate ex developers can bug their wag out of not saving wetland at first mitigation measures quothad no teethquot Drafting effective mitigation measures 5 questions for effective mitigation measures Whg whg is this mitigation measure being imposed what explain content of mitigation Who who is responsible for mitigating this measure Where location of mitigation esp when dealing with spatial habitats When timing Adequacy of Mitigation Measures wording potentiallg adequate if word it right there is a higher chance it will work inadequate consult with lwho submit for review get response studg further studg forever but not come out with a conclusion inform inform someone but if there is no followup then it makes no sense strive to tried but it didnt quite work out mitigation measures must be measurable accountable specific Objective of Mitigation Measures look over ensure imp of mitigation measures during project allow for adaptive mgmt provide feedback on mitigation effectiveness provide learning opportunities for improving mitigation measures on future projects identifg need for enforcement action to prevent env damage The Env Process as modi ed by AB 3180 before action proposed is pre application Mitigation Measures Reading mitigation monitoring occurs during 3 phases of project implementation plan check construction and operation Preservimg Ag land the need for Stewardship I AGRICULTURE THINK OF THE WORLD AS AN APPLE HAVE LIMITED LAND TO GROW CROPS Preserving agriculture land need to pay attention to how we use water for agriculture ag is a business ag in CA brings in 32 billion dollars annually ca ag is responsible for almost l in lOjobs 4 major probs l erosion most productive lager of soil is the top lager can be eroded awag bg wind and water soil conservation critical for sustainable agriculture 2 salinitg salt build up in the soil increasing prob in many irrigated arid and semi arid parts of the world much of the irrigated land in ca39s central and imperial valleys is either affected or threatened by salinization 3 water supply 4 farmland conversion population growth 72 billion currently lO billion by 2050 CAs population currently at 2l4 million 48 million by 2030 l2 lived in cities and l 2 lived in farmland l million acres in CA l2 owned by gov lfed most state and local l 2 private sector l 2 million is urbanized g through reading before class and graze again after whatever said in class will be on the test no study guides definition terms figure out what def is symbolic to important short answer Prof OH on Wednesdays only History of City Planning in the US and the Evolution of Urban America I land use is regulated at the city and county level ex build a greenhouse go to local gov Ambulance down in the valley poem Bartuska and c gull Q A 0 g gm su of these de nes the scope of the total built env products created to extend the human capacity to perform speci c tasks machines materials interiors grouping of products enclosed in a structure living room stadiums structures planned groupings of places de ned by its products schools churches landscapes exterior areas and or settings for planned groupings gardens national forests parks cities groupings of structures 82 landscapes clustered together to de ne a comm for econ social cultural and or env reasons regions groupings of cities 82 landscapes countries continents earth SYSTEM all of the above the groupings of regions consisting of cities and landscapes the ultimate artifact for test ldentify these diff components and give an example of each of these cycles design process to plan and implement an idea more speci c planning the design or formulation of a scheme for making doing or arranging something more general Young reading PPT The Idea of Planning by which society decides what gets built where process by which pub agencies mostly local govs determine the intensity 82 geographical arrangements of various land uses in a comm planning is application of foresight analyzing trends in comm 82 understanding trend to action the way land is used and distributed within a comm affects ppls social and economic circumstances The Scope of Planning natural env resources use distrib conservation env sensitive areas env quality manmade env infrastructure roads public buildings sewers pub transportation etc sociopolitical systsmzjob is to protect the public health safety and welfare 5 Activities DULSE word interrelated important socioeconomic one citg that might be segregated but still share the same resources l Urban Design lagout of a comm or specific dev project including site planning and urban design 2 Laws and regs shaping and application of state laws and local regs to a particular planning process or to a specific dev project 3 Env Analgsis assessing the impact of a plan or proposed dev project on the states env lex traffic congestion climate change 4 Socioeconomic analgsis assessing the impact of a planproject in a neighborhoods social structure comm fiscal health regions economic basis etc 5 political approval winning the support of the public and elected representatives for a plan planning process or a specific dev proposal Traditions of Planning traditional def managing the conversion of natural or farm areas to urban use l phgsical planning urban design product the plan la visionarg guide 2 Tradition of the law rationale for imposing public limitations over private land provides the power to implement the plan design and law building blocks of planning Why Plan and Legal Basis of Planning to protect preserve and distribute resources and promote and rotect ub interest police powerzauthorit e e use of private propertg enforce laws that protect pub health safetg and welfare orate power authoritg to generate revenues thru taxes use moneg to secure public goods lparks street lights schools etc c Planning is Political a public decision making process subject to lobbging bg interest groups Conflicts in Urban Planning conflict resolution ppl who come in and resolve conflicts private vs public vs communitg goals ex Daso Robles is having a water table problem conflict btwn env preservationists planners investors and developers conflict land as resource vs land as commoditg lalso sometimes land as the context for a human comm 4 FutuTe Trends in CA Planning l pop growth and demographic change new trend all pop growth comes from foreign immigration and natural increase 2 dramatic redistrib of the pop within the state and within metropolitan areas pop is moving inward to central cities and older suburbs and outward to the metropolitan fringe often begond the fringe to small towns and evolving rural areas pop of some cities has doubled even tho cities have not increased in geographic size 3 a dwindling land supply in most metropolitan areas changing landscapes in the inland area where farms and natural areas are giving awag to conventional suburban dev land supplies decreasing in mature urban areas San Diego Bag Area not enough land to accommodate growth with traditional suburban dev 4 lingering effects of the Great Recession make sure neighborhoods do not become quotinstant slumsquot 6 engoing is5uee irrCA Planning l political nature of the planning process 3 characteristics make it di cult to manage political nature of planning heightened political awareness singleissues politics the politics of proximitg 2 the ongoing statelocal scal crisis infrastructure projects are verg expensive in CA prop 3 everg planning decision carries with it the baggage of nancial considerations 82 impacts other agencies 3 competition and lack of cooperation among local govs local govs use and planning to ght for a nancial advantage scalization has lead to an everg citg for themselves attitude that is damaging planning and qualitg of life at a regional level 4 location and price appropriate housing cost of housing began to dominate planning discussions most a ordable housing is further awag om emplogment centers 5 suburban sprawl vs compact urban form although there is no state growth plan assumption is held that compact dev is superior 6 property rights planning process must accommodate the rights of propertg owners History PPT part 1 Evolution of Am City Planning ntnerneg O9 A gnaned Am planning shaped this countrg to where it is todag Book called l49l what Am was like during the New World prior to Christopher Columbus advance planning 9 Colonial Town Planning Tradition Europeans brought planning as we know it idea that towns were preplanned C Law of the Indies King Philip the 2nd of Spain purpose was to plan comm bc theg were colonizing preplan to be successful thinking about the future William Penn and Philadelphia WP designed Dhil as a grid The Georgia Colony settlementunit l U uses a grid town citg area around the town resources land that contains soil to grow crops L 1FCO local agencg formation commission make citg boundaries btuun land for cities TRev of the passing of the colonial town plannin AntiUrban Bias ltreated cities as equals Economic Competition Among Cities Decline of Municipal Gov lking no congress Land Speculation lbug low and sell high like housing The continental checkerboard of the continental congress purpose of setting up countrg for settlement USGS map section l square mile of sections in a larger estate 0 is unique bc had a Spanish Mexican influence ranchos ride horse and that39s gour land thelandordinance af2l5 set up the township sgstemT Jefferson progressive era sanitation art parks Basic tools of General Plan Implementation Corporate Powers definition local gov authority to generate revenue use it for schools law enforcement planning local govs didnt have power until states gave it to them construction of streets roads water and sewage treatment facilities acquisition and dev of parks acquisition of sites for low and moderate income housing acquisition of dev rights and open space conservation or scenic easements creation of dev corporations land banking save land for future public use Police Powers definition the authority of local gov to regulate citizen behavior thru land use city required dev to cite elementary school in dev 82 pay for plan of it tools used speci c planning zoning subdivision rights park dedication requirements Fulton fundamental responsibilities is to protect the health safety and welfare of cities Maps zoning and general plan of the City of Chilliwack can see lots in zoning map onsistency requirements btwn general plan 82 zoning Chapter 6 of Fulton relators will tell you what zoning is but not the general plan may be zone residential but there might be a general plan in the making 82 they havent changed the zoning yet quotdo diligencequot means to research a piece of land lex notice a double yellow line on the street it means its a busy street Hypothetical Gen Plan Zoning Compatibility Matrix density per housing Floor to density minimum of units you have to develop floor bc dont want a low density there 0 density bad bc wasting land commercial is intensity how big structure is and use of it like residential most restricted neighborhood commercial little corner neighborhood stores zoning should allow small stores to meet needs of the neighborhood lnot walmart agriculture where they allow horses chicken Vertical Horizontal all elements of gen plan are of equal value and all work together ex Goleta general plan supported affordable housing but when looked at land use density became a problem Basic components of a zoning ordinance chap 6 of Fulton not the same thing as the dimensions of zoning luse fault and mgmt what goes in a zoning ordinance larticles De nitions l acre 45500 square feet net acre 45500 square feet with no interferences gross acre one acre but theres restrictions cant use some of the land bc there are easements lstreets flood control General Provisions code that affects the entire code requirement that the general plan consistent with the zoning plan Zoning District one that has permitted use and standards that have their own regs Special Dev standards that affect all zoning districts ex regs about sizes and tgpes of signs and parking spaces requirements dill levels of recgcling facilities Admin 82 enforcement its a process ex what tgpes of permits House lltnow propertg lines when building house Buildable Area zoning dictates how big lots are Euclidean zoning zoning envelope a box regulating land lot bg lot can build lot inside box The Far Side compatibilitg two businesses that are selling the same thing are not going to be compatible together Smns purpose of signs is to give information signs got bad during 50s60s paint all over buildings Homer Alaska 50 signs lmost towns do not allow 50 signs 98 not allowed to paint neon signs OT Culvercitg uglg signs Queens Fashions covering beautiful building with awning Historic Trends in Zoning pyramid housing most restrictive zone was at the top lsingle lamilg permit zoning all uses allowed above are included in a level allowed mixed use dev zone incompatible moved to Exclusive Zoning segregaled all lhe uses crealed inleresling impacls such as lraffic caused some cilies lo make having a car necessarg Evils of Euclidean Zoning l conlribuled lo increased housing cosl bc of supplg and demand reslricled dev of land lex densilg 2 led lo lhe design of dull 82 monolonous housing dev same heighl same sel backs 3 conlribuled lo urban sprawl and energg wasle energg wasled from having a car lo live oulside of cilg LA is one of lhe densesl cilg 4 led lo bureaucracg of zoning lime consuming over whelming zoning was suppose lo be simple bul isnl bc of lhe inlensilg of lhe urban land 5 promolion of fraud 82 corruplion zoning reallg delermines lhe value of properlg lverg polilical coaslal commissioner exlracled moneg from ppl who gave him moneg ex planning direclor al Long Beach busled for exlracling moneg from designers llo gel approval would pag direclor ex man lived in an apl owned bg one of lhe biggesl dev LL gave him a favorable renl in relurn he would lake applicalion of his landlord and move il lo lhe fronl of lhe pile ex Fresno cilg council up for sale and word gol oul if wanl lo gel projecls lhru gou beller gel moneg in lhere FBI did invesligalion and found middleman does nol happen as oflen as il used lo bc now lhere is a full disclosure when gou applg 6 used lo discriminale againsl lhe poor and minorilies Exclusionarg Zoning rural comm would do a large lol zoning on purpose exclude ppl bc loo big and loo expensive some ppl argue lhal Euclidean zoning was one of lhe mosl racisl in lhe U9 CCllRs pul lhal gou cannol lel a race in lnclusionarg zoning be sure lo have diversilg in zoning ex cerlain percenl of houses musl be affordable aka bonus housing 2 page article in readings zoning lodag a lime for reckoning goes wilh Evils of Zoning celebraling some kind of area relaling lo zoning ilalics impacls lhal Euclidean zoning had balance blwn public and privale whal zoning was suppose lo do nuisance laws used before lo deal wilh incompalible housing quotzoning has nol deall adequalelg wilh regional probsquot climale change which goes begond properlg lines Evolulion of Flexible Zoning Techniques Planned Unil devs single familg delached 2 acre sile Rlllc min is l acre lgpical subdivision provide flexibiliig Lo rLine House RDD resideniial plan dev Rl393DlA base is slill l acre no sei backs righi on properig line flexibiliig lo provide more lois and Wo have RDD39s insfead of Rl39s lo have ihe flexibililg lo come up wiih general planis village house smaller lols more open space lover half is common open space Twin House share properfg line and common wall lois smaller and more open space paiio house bc have palios airium house bc have afrium weak link iown house garage separaies uniis lois of open space muliiplexz muliiple uniis iown house high ceilings open space freer lifesigle Homeowners Associaies fakes care of evergihing aparimenlsz slill RDD can have single lam deiached houses or apis same densifg creaied more open space Mixed use veriicalz commercial on ground floor and resideniial on lop from pgramid housing horizonialz commercial on froni and resideniial in fhe back lallies in back someiimes condos pafios performance zoningquotbe aware that it does existquot measurable ihing noi used lhai much floor lo densifgz flexibilifg in ierms of how much loi ihai gou cover more space covered higher ihe building can be ex SF if gou provide childcare as an ameniig in work building gou gel more floors Over Lag zones popular bc if proiecis resources exira sei backs from like a creek inclusionarg zoning no reason whg gou musi build lo fell ihe whole world gour poor ex llarin Cilg under budgel no exlra cool for making a building look good ppl living lhere revolled deelroged whole building looke like high rieed transfer of dev rights quotlalk aboul lalerquot Eliot Reading Hielorg of zoning eep Euclidean history of zoning topics lhave a definilion for each one of lheeel elandard zoning and planning enabling acie alternatives of Euclidean Zoning planning unil Dev performance zoning formbaeed zoning reeuliz euclidean hybrid zoning Euclidean Zoning named a er Euclid Ohio won lhe firel laweuil over legalilg of zoning backbone of zoning a division of lhe cilg info uee zoninge and boxes info which buildinge had lo if in order lo avoid crowding lheir neighbore lraneilioned from basic lo complex from onlg 3 lgpee lree comm induelrgl lo bue l bus 2 criliciemez l unlairneee and abuse objeclione onlg a er eeeing lhe change lhe newepaper 2 complexilgz no limil lo lhe number of zone dielricle lhal cud be crealed 3 variancee loo o en loo lhe poinl where zoning wae allecling onlg emall of properliee 82 didn39 gel much a enlion Standard Zoning and Planning Enabling Acts Slandard Zoning Enabling Acl 9242 ciliee wanled lo zone led didn39 make ciliee zone locueed moellg on procedures flexibililg of rules elandard zoning Acl 926 zoning plan Slandard Cilg planning Enabling Acl l928 oullined lhe eelbe of a planning commieeione lo drah a maeler plan elreel plane conlrole or lhe subdivision of land 82 lhe need for regional planning CA planning law were made from lheee promoled cilg planning and zoning probleme wilh sequences of evenle crealed legal aulhoriig lo regulale before crealing aulhorilg lo plan for fulure land use PUD planned unit dev probe once projecl is approved gou muel elick wilh ii compromiee blwn dev and ciliee dev wanled qualilg Performance Zoning deeigned lo improve flexibililg lei plannere deal wiih ihe bad impacie Form based zoning locus more on form of dev less on permitted use form based zoning v mixed use zoning focus on relationship of the building to the street surrounding buildings people cars location relationship btwn building and street provides more tlexibilitg in terms of design Euclidean Hybrid Zoning takes the best of evergthing and puts them into a code just know what is form based codes Cluster Subdivisions how gou subdivide land to begin with Prairie dogs societies create a sense of communities classic Subdivision create lot that is min lot size does not acknowledge angthing but lots Resource Restricted Site design sub divisions to incorporate resources on site How subdivision Process works chapter 8 of Fulton roles of subdivisions consumer protectiontentative maps dev can ask for a tentative map dev can plan dev using the tentative map then when getting nal map approved no new laws that werent on the tentative map can be used against the dev plans compare a tentative map map that goes thru pubic hearing topographg lines draw lots lmeet min lot size drawn to scale of map planners measure everg lot to make sure dev follow rules theg are net acres common lot be whole building is owned bg one person next map looks cleaner still has townships have lots not necessarilg net acres lsome have easements Traditional Euclidean Planning v Modern Planning no respect for what is on land has 3 access points same of units no decrease in densitg put trging to protect resources can have a mix use of housing tgpes has l access point Planning in terms of protecting resources land is general planned for developmeni iradiiional wag consideraiion of sensiiive areas all in privaie ownership dev can desirog if iheg wani modern nd whai opporiuniiies and consirainis are firsi gei a clusier dev io proieci resources do a reallg good ciie analgsis find oui ihai ihere are lois of consirained areas find oui besi places 0 be dev clusier again lsame of uniis puiiing housing parcels in clusiers io proieci resources view properig oui and oui io properig where locaie houses io gei max views bui also concerned aboui area around negaiive some dev will eniice gov iurning ag land inio ciig and give some moneg io ihem Related Zoning Tools rezoning zone changes rezoning 0 a new designaiion bc of new general land or rezone io agriculiure usuallg issued bg properig owner who wanis io change zone variances used as iool io gei around inflexibiliig of Euclidean zoning based around hardship permii issued 0 a properig owner io relieve a hardship someihing resiricis owner from doing someihing evergone else can do ex neighbors can build io properig line bui owner cani bc of easemeni resources used io reduce a siandard on use on a properig nonconforming usessiruciuresparcelscondiiional use permiis CUPDiscreiionarg Review bc use is allowed does noi mean ii is legal Code Enlorcemeni Findings siaiemenis of laci ihai suppori a decision ex consisiencg biwn general plan and zoning Appeals nap aw o alppgw aw ug poqos JBLuawaa nmm J8JB lmeads ueqmqns 01 gtpBq 8185 6ugqJ 8B08 Jda0uoo ugat5 acumen nun pootpoqq gau meqwna laguea tumm ntgtneaq ue pJemoH Jazauaqg sumo mausame uapJe6 wsgueqm mau Jto stuapaoaJd Buguuegd uo leuog aa zasuodszu BUO58J tuA5uA qtmoJ5 mq qtmoJ6 ueus asuodsaJtuau1uJano6 aqt msgue39qJn mau zasuodszu u6gsap gmeuds 01 asuodsaa saggqowome Jto aouapuadap eg4ed5 Magluam uv u1sguvq1n MaN uogtetuauadu1g sg msgueqm mau pue oglod sg qtmo6 ueus 5ugpea3aouaJatqa aq4 s4eqm zwsgueqm ma N pue qtmoJguew3 ugau nensn do8 tgsuet ogqnd B punom pauiigsap 8 teqt nap map p8lU8JOl8UBJ 1 1 uo tgnq 6ugqtawos seq peaqe teqt uadoJd uo JO pue mm J10 saozud Janoga Jaqua uo nap mau znap gJ1ug gmmds ueqmqns uogteJaua5 43 nap uog4eJaua5 pug Jto eapg Qpg d 4 deuo u Iru mogaq qtmoJ6 pews JO sagdgouud o 893 d uuuad B patue6 aq gm no aoueqo Jaqiigq swgod aqt Jaq6gq lJ8dOJd Jgaqt d0axap pno aqt mun m pauem ldd aJntonuseJtug J10 aouanbas pue Bugum q5noJq4 4w5w 04 4q6noJq seq tw6w qtmoJ5 4eqm sauepunoq qLmoJ6 ueqm lemsnpug pue BOJ8WUJO0 fiugsnoq 23 dod uo sdeo lw5w J10 sadwexa A deqo ug 6uguo2 Jto suogsuawgp g Jo4sgq mougt mop 4w6w q4moJ5 2933 d u deuo u m apgue dn amm stuatuoo taaqs J8IO0 tsg aouaJataJ uaq pue agogue to am stuatuoo to aqet q uo gensgn e mnd auu yids uosaad my asn ueo uguueld Gugweal qum no padgaq q pagtogd no qm madse geuosmd ssego aq 0 u 6uggtug pue agogue ugzueumns agogue moqe xem 5d 1 doo pmq ug um pue aoedsoqone uo tsod uAoo ua2gtaued smdedsmau JO augguo zsamnos uem asn pueg qum op 04 Sugqmmos Suguueld 01 sateaJ pue ug patsaJatug Jno teqm ssego am 04 patoauuoo alogue poo5 uem 1 2 Juau1u6gssv downtowns the humane metropolis and exploding metropolis Principles of new urbanism regioncommneighborhood network of streets mixed use housing style mix center public space Portland OR urban growth program Duany39s urban transect not one size fits all Euclidean zoning was built for suburbia not urban areas zones with diff standards representing that land Symbol of new urbanism represents a real community I have a concentraton of retail or commercial residential around idea from center of dev is that most ppl can walk lO mins walkable and pleasant to walk new urbanism has the hierarchy of streets Celebration Florida looks diseylandish the crossings at Mountain View took out an old mall and put in a new mixed used dev apts condos single fam detached houses open space Aggie Village for faculty at U00 carriage units secondary units for renting porches compatibility What ppl like about new urbanism small town feeling traditional lifestyles nostalgia place to raise children place to retire know your neighbors autooriented walking distance traditional design I What ppl dont like about new urbanism loss of privacy fewjobs available high costs commuting controls tourists lack of diversity New urbanism bright side dark side look at slide Randolph Chap 17 Smart Growth Mgmt Lecture Environmental land protection and response to sprawl design to response smart growth emphasizes dev in areas of exiting infrastructure Ten Principles for Smart Growth know about 5 of them l Preserve open space farmland natural beauty 8 critical env areas 2 Strengthen 82 direct dev toward existing communities 3 Take advantage of company building design 4 Mix land uses 5 Create a range of housing opportunities 8 choices 6 Provide a variety of transportation choices 7 Create a walkable neighborhoods 8 Foster distinctive attractive communities w a strong sense of place 9 Encourage comm 82 stakeholder collab lO Make dev decisions predictable fair 82 cost effective Smart Growth Mgmt Tools lplanning tools comprehensive planning implementation plants infrastructure acquisition 2 regulatory tools conventional zoning innovative regs overlay cluster performance 3 nonregulatory tools infrastructure investment sewer water roads land acquisition tax policies phased dev dont do it all at once controls on the location but the rate of dev or the number of units per year to keep pace with the provision of public services concurrency dev plans can be approved only if they are concurrent with plans for infrastructure and or other public services Built to LastNew Urbanism AFT by the Numbers Reading CA TX FL fast growing urban Big 5 North Carolina and AZ CA TXFL most acreage lost to urban encroachment PRESERVING AG LAND the need for Stewardship Part II Farming on the Edge eniire island of l ll has high qualiig farmland ihais in ihe paih of developmeni ceniral valleg of GA represeni 25 of eniire food produciion source of ihe USE Santa Clara VallegI940 used 0 be one of ihe mosi produciive farm land in ihe counirg afier lillUll San Jose is relaiivelg small delaged aciion of posi lillUll urban sprawl didni siari uniil 5 grs laier ciig magor or governor announced ihai goal of SJ was io become ihe LA of ihe llorih SJ implemenied ii annexed angihing ihai didn39i move in earlg 50s locked nearbg ciiies up so ihai iheg could noi expand lannex making incorp properig info a corporaie properig bc moving inio ihe ciig limiisl SC l980 verg spread oui whiie areas counig islands unincorp area no LAFCO gei Cuperfinol970 mosi agriculiure was gone Greenbelt AllianceI850 reallg siaried io fill in bg 990 Tbdag Greenbeli Alliance program ihai maps ihe problem areas colors show how much a farmland is ai risk of being urbanized Bag area has ihe besi raiio of open space iop l0 producers 7 in ceniral valleg i950 LA iop producing Central Valley I992 Urban sprawl 2040 zone of conflici Farmland Use and Dev during ihe l990s ihe Ceniral Valleg experienced a decline of aboui 223000 acres of high qualiig farmland pg 435437 discussion of farmland williamson act designed to preserve farmland as well as promote orderlg urban growth patterns allows counties to assess farmland according to ag use rather than based on speculative value for urban dev tax break up to date info about ag land in CA Quality of Farmland Dev most land being converted is ag land Strategy Increase density lots of recommendations about how to tax land to stop development discovered that avg densitg was about 3 units to the acre llow densitg if double land lto 6 units to the acre gou would protect L3 million acres of farmland from urban dev Ranchettes and Other Rural Dev problem in central valleg Ranchette Dev land divisions lot splits subdivisions of land thats like 5 blocks or more common in rural areas zoning has a minimum parcel size destrogs ag land rezone or downzoning to keep agricultural integritg upzoning increase densitg Agl Residential in Compatibility issue of compatibilitg in terms of adjacent land uses nuisance complaints bg non farming neighbors lex dust noisesmell spragingl Farmers Rights farmers were there first High land prices drive out farmers land prices escalate begond values based on farm incomes ranching families cant afford to pass land on to next generation goung farmers cant bug land to get started self fulfilling prophecg of the tax collector one farm sells to developer assessor reassesses price of land and tax tax and presser goes up for other farmers Williamson Act and get AE assessor has to reassess in terms of ag land Preserving ag land the need For stewardship Pt III Ag Land Conversion Policies fed state local non pro ts Federal Policies 2007 Farm Bill was suppose to be approved in 20l2 has mang programs assoc with it to protect resources relating lo agriculture everg 5 geare have 0 refinance he programe coneerxai0n and reeerve program keep land 0u of pr0duci0n ranching or farming from hedge row 0 hedge row epace bwn properiee ve fence line 0 fence line no epace bwn properg linee The Sae CA CA Farmland Mapping and ll0ni0ring program 0ollt info from c0uniee and map where all he bee ag land wae CA hae good farmland bc of irrigai0n Venura Coung each c0ung givee he eae a map colore green prime ag land eoile are claee l and 2 bee eoile gou can ge SB keg ag areae ha remain now are he Lompoc Valleg he Sana Maria Valley Qugama Valleg SLO m0e a he e0uhern par of he c0ung m0e are vinegarde and cale paeo roblee hae l0e of vinegarde LAFCO ephere of in uence encompaeeee incorp and unincorp erri0rg which ie he cige ulimae eervice area 3oasal rging 0 pr0ec c0eal ag land Venfura migraed Eae approved ag land 0 ge dev m0e land became dev be of c0mpaibilig bwn ag land and dev Greenbel Alliance idenifiee pare of he Bag Area greenbel a riek from eprawl N aure Conservancy mieeione ie 0 preeerve he plane animale and naural comm ha repreeen he divereig of life on Earh bg pr0ecing he lande and waere heg need 0 eurvive baeicallg bi0divereig ex rice lande become perfec placee for migraing birde Land Trus rue for public land Randolph Chap 15 Reading Design and Planning tools for Open Space Greenwags and Green Infrastructure pg 55455 be able to define what a land trust is table 58 working landscape ex tree farms and fish performance green infrastructure Land Conservation Agricultural Zoning zoning district standards list permits and fundamental standards Land Preservation Overlay Zones flat zoning map over lag zone goes on top of base zone then can require additional setbacks from zoning line on ag area mag impose extra restrictions Transfer of Dev Rights trging to find ways to save land and give up some 90 AC farm that theg want to dev in general plan alreadg estb commons going to give up some to protect the law receiving v sending area village owner pags farmer for dev rights to create more lots Collab conservation and dev combine gour tools can do lots with one piece of propertg IO step Guideline for ag protection I Start with urban planning l comprehensive planning 2 combat impermanence 2 get the facts I be able to position ag in the local economg g2Ql lU 5 Engage the Comm l nearlg impossible to save farmland without public support part of involvement is education 4manage the conversion of farmland keep land from converting to ag 5 consider information for ag provide propertg tax incentives dev adequate water supplies simplifg farm permit processes encouraging new farmers assisting farmers w env compliance building qualitg farm worker housing promoting the economic dev of ag and encouraging farm marketing 6 Address quoturban edge issues 7 tailor a plan l this is where gou combine gour tools speci c to the local situation 8 Secure funding l egtltcombining state local lllO easement funds 9 Overcome obstacles l trouble w consensus 2 inadequate funding lO See it through l resist temptation and pressure Farmland Protection Action Guide contents has lO steps for conserving farmland study guide is on the last page look at strategies and see how diverse they are notjust about land New CA law aims to cultivate urban ag Elliot Chap l The Limitless City Chap l What is sprawl land ownership and use transportation patterns telecommunications tech and regs and standards 4 basic characteristics of sprawl leapfroq or scattered dev commercial strip dev low densitg larqe expanses of single use dev The Humane Metropolis Video William H White urban theorists ariicles in ihe 50s bg While ialked aboui ihe culiure and lifesigle of posi war suburbs ideniified ihe lagoui of houses in relaiion lo social funciions of open space bg 968 wroie anoiher book save open space in rneiropoliian arnerica siudied which kinds of public spaces drew ppl in and which excluded ihern wan red ciiies io be equiiable and susiainable Reading A Human Metropolis epilogue shows ihe inierdisciplinarg ness of planning pic of ecological ciiies shared vision definiiion of humane rneiropolis a rubric 0 summarize and prornofe env and social qualifg in confernporarg urban rnosaics II The 19th Century Anlecedenls of Modern City Planning The Era of imaginary Villages Town of Eden Jefferson Indiana diagonal slreels lo ling lols if make more plols lhen gel more moneg Rural ransilion Rapid Expanesion lhemes immigralion migralion and leehnologg Cineinnali buill lowns near rivers ppl made eareers oul of river Railroads rapid inerease of rail line helping lo sellle in lhe wesl job is lo provide aeeess and sell and lead lo manilesl desling whalever is available lake il 9 had 850 ppl in 848 subdivided wilh no eonsidera 39 n lopographg H0 we 5 0 publie deeision making involving privale aelions baekgard of a lenemenl railroad lraek lols in NY 320 ppl per square aerelloolball lield woulhouses and wells in lhe baek lagoul of railroad plan in lhe l850s one window in lhe whole house no elevalorjusl slairs amounl of park land in our eilies usuallg onlg eemeleries were lhe open lands Cenlral park in NYC was lhe prized park nished al lhe lime planned as a grid look a big ellorl lo keep eenlral park be il is lhe oldesl park eilies are slarling lo gel prellg dense planning is nonexislenl lboslon lsl migralion sellling in lhe easl eoasl migraling wesl eslb of grid whg idea of planning is prevalenl in lhe wesl 2nd migralion is lhe rail urban rail be lhere were no ears 3939aaamp rs 44 The Posl Civil War Era Company TownsFirsl Suburb gol lhe gas lamp and lelephones buildings were allowed lo lurn inlo skgserapers be of sleel in lhe elevalors Riveisideellll869 Firsl Ring Suburb in Chieago eemelerg leurvg slreels railroad in lhe middle open spaces nexl lo a river Pullman L 885 Compang lown lown made rail ears erealed niee housing for lhe workers workers renled houses eompang owns everglhing paid enough lo survive in eomm downlall no oullel lo express lhemselves lno eouneil meelings 4890 no more lronlier lo sellle in in lhe US l P p0 0B zlhe rebirlh of am urban planning marks lhe beginning of lhe Cilg Beaulilul Mvml eelebraling lhe 400lh anniversarg ol diseovering Am world lairs goin on evergwhere objeel of major eompelilion blwn a number of eilies plaged a role in showing ell lheir new leehnologies US eleelrieilg Freneh Eiffel lower opened lhe nalions eges lo whal a planner arehileel and landseape arehileel eould do working logelher While Cilg greal deal on while painll Chieago mosl of lhe buildings burnl down nol a lol of publie salelg swamp area eonverled inlo eilg lhe devil and lhe while eilg book building of lhe Chieago Reading Chap 6 of Fulton links to state of the art plans General Plan Process in CA Basics and Beyond general plan is like a puzzle general plan what is the desired end of your comm once it is built out all decisions made week in 82 week out represent one more piece of the puzzle is out in place basic requirements every county and city must adopt a comprehensive long term general plan general plan acts as a constitution for future dev comprehensive planning geographic LAFCO must encompass the whole area city limits in the center town outside is sphere of influence commons outside of that is resources issues ex air quality public transportation waste mgmt prioritize everything bc cant solve everything fundamental responsibility as a planner is to solve problems long term typically 520 yrs reviews every 5 years target year to accomplish everything in general plan most are in 2020 the 7th generation chief seattle native americans how will this comm affect 7 generations out politicians think only until next election consistency llater Elements of the general plan all carry equal value fundamental law book says land use element and circulation 7 mandatory elements I Land use most basic part of the plan ex pop density building intensity 82 the distrib of land uses within a city or county 2 Circulation my general location and extent of existing and proposed major through fares transportation routes terminals and other local public utilities and facilities deals w all major transportation improvements and utility lines 3 Housing assess the need for housing for all income groups 82 lay out a program to meet those needs only element that is reviewed by the state city and counties must review every 35 years so state can look over it 4 Conservation deals w flood control conservation of nat resrouces lag land and wildlife 82 air 82 water pollution protecting resources lex water sheds addresses the conservation dev 82 use natural resources 5 Open Space provide a plan for the longterm preservation of open space in the comm 6 Noise identify noise probs in the comm 82 suggest measures for the noise abatement 7 Safelg proleci humans om ihe env and env om fhe humans esib policies and programs lo prolecl fhe comm om risks associaled wiih seismic geologic ood 82 wild re hazards popular op onal elemenisz lchanges names air qualiig agricullure design econ dev growih mgml hisloric preserva on parks 82 recs pub facili es seismic mosl coun es have agricullural in general plan SLO SB parllts and recs imporfani in ci es donl worrg aboui guidelines public par cipa on ge ing ppl inieresied is lough bc ppl r busg lfood is besi wag goals inform ihe public oblain inpui regarding major issues 82 obJ39ec ves par cipafe in allerna ve selec on inform fools websifes publica ons lhave lo go lo ppl iheg woni come oui lo u de ni on of lerms lblew lhru lhem lilerallgl crea ng a land use map l broad range of housing igpes con gs and densi es 2 accomodaie lo pop increases 3 housing pa erns lhai promoie energg conserving lransporia on meihods 4 neighborhoods lscalel shud include a hub wiihin walking disiance of housing in ihe neighborhood encouraging in ll lransiiorienled dev Goal reduce reliance on fhe auiomobile lhru ihe dev of in ll and lransii orienled dev Dolicg how lo achieve goal encourage in ll dev mixes uses high densiig housing 82 commercial land uses 82 increased densi es near iransii 2 popular words shall siandard should wouldn39l ii be nice if vague more flexible Siandardsz dev musl be close lo lrain sia ons and bus siops gt can increase residen al densiig exiremelg speci c and measurable has shall lells cilg ihai gou musi approve projecf if meels ihis siandard Ac ons recommend changes in lhe zoning code ihai uses mixed use dev hard lo gel ci es lo nance mixed use developmeni ex will nance commercial bui noi residen al Adop on adopf a plan legisla ve approving a decision quasi minisierialz 0 K CEQA compliance general plan is a projeci keg word quotcumulative impaciquot of a projeci proposal ering di levels implementation fools eorporafe powere police power eoneiefeneg of fhe general plan horiz bfwn and ver eal eoneiefeneg physical order social order shapes the culture of the town III The Partial Recovery of Planning in the US A The s order and beauty brought together the ideas of municipal art civic improvement and landscape design sought to create or remark a part of the citg civic center boulevard parkwag Washington DC U902 well planned became a mess too 2 parts Washington and slums had a fetish with diamond over grids designers like to make a model sgmbol of the citg beautiful mvmt bc of Teddg Roosevelt best example of the Citg Beautiful planning is the Mall and its surroundings SF in 905 business ppl funded the planning it was in their own self interest well planned citg better business puts industrial plants in the south east part so it downwind earthquake hit in 9062 put new plan in place well planned civic centers public buildings parks and streets all part of economg all public domains encourage industrial activitg to be downwind plan of Chicago U909 marked the beginning of the age of modern citg planning shaped the ideas of planners politicians and citizens about what a comprehensive plan should be and how it should be implemented best sgmbol of what the citg beautiful mvmt was all about transportation elements was a regional and citg plan serious business ppl funded and planned Chicago plans for street widening overpasses parks and wildlife preserves in and near cities suggested laid out a sgstem of circumferential highwags skgscrapers road sgstem for rich ppl to have sundag drives The quotCity practicalquot or city efficient Era the quot2 x i9ig l9l64 7 reached a point where theg needed something to organize land ordinances comprehensive plan that includes the whole citg regulates tgpe of land what can gou put on propertg propertg height etc buildings can be double the width of the street the wider the street the more mobilitg the higher the buildings large buildings create microclimates and wind tunnels in some of the streets skgscrapers taller the building the more each floor had to go in a little bit Birth of the American Automobile Culture increase in motor vehicles 5978 in 920 to 8600 in 925 4th migration start building highwagsfreewags and opening up more land for future developments no motels or gas stations get Milestones in American Planning skipped elale enabling legielalion U922 i928 Euclid ve Aigbler Reallg H926 ohapler 3 Fullon lalllted aboul a lillle led gov oame oul wilh model planning lawe for lhe elale lo adaple First Suburbs for lhe Molor Age ladbur1sNE7bll Q 8laadaRegional Qlan f4 elglil9 lirel allempl lo buill a suburb lo eeparale people from cars hierarohg of elreele dill eize elreele lhal have dill lunelione lo lhem ool de eaee loop of houses euper bloelq oonoepl bigger elreele go around Green Bell oonoepl garden oiliee epoken bg Fullon alliee were a big deal baok lhen bul lhen il became a dump IV Planning 19301950 The Greal Depression WWII WDA work progreee admin big inlraelruoluree made euoh ae dame regional ellorlez beel ex Tenn39e e39Tee e 4all il2egion agrioullure deelroged eoil flood and erosion prob build dame for eleolrioal power reeeruoire for waler and lo prevenl from ooding eoil ooneerualion eervioe Green Bell llargland in Ballimore elimulale lhe eoonomg lhru building new deal gov gel large lraoke of land gel oarpenlere lo build houeing inoreaeed eoonomg lhru wagee lo bug lhinge looks like a lien book allordable houeing During WWII nol muoh planning The New Deal 82 federal Participation in Planning lede onlg one wilh lhe moneg be of lhe prinling preee new deal oomee inlo plag wilh ldr IV 1950 19702 quotThe Exploding Melropolisquot amp lhe Birlh of Modern Suburbia Leuilown houeee buill lo be allordable good qualilg real wood floors Lakewood CA l75OO houses in 8 monlhe ppl building lheee houses were paid eo lhal lheg could afford lhe houee lheg were building LA ueed lo be lhe higheel produoing agrioullural area in lhe 9509 900i960 increase of housing unile and ear sales 4960 era of suburban sprawl euergone wanled a car orealed lhe Am Dream lole of loan programs for Velerane lo bug houeee Dalg oilg garden epol of uolinian zoning euerglhing ie lhe eame heighl CA enu qualilg aol linding impaole when a developmenl elarle buill houeing adjaoenl lo lhe olille no oonoern aboul earlhquake laulle oiliee elarled building malle parking muel reepond lo lhe bueieel dag al lhe mall 3 polioiee lhal inlluenoed lhe pallern for euburbia l iniersfaie high wag sgsiern woodrow wilson pushed fhe high wag aoi 2 enoouragerneni of ppl lo bug aulornobiles 3 low inferesi loans for ueferans lo purohase houses V Since 1970 Battle Over Sprawl amp Evolving Alf urban renewal housing enu awareness aofiuisrn growh rnanagerneni srnari growih new urbanisrn susfainable developrnenf new sub urbanisrn efo LAFCO THING inorease sphere of influence ihru laloo be laloo assigns boundaries VII The 5 Migrations From the colonies to the present lewis rnernpherds pieoe whaf if was like in 925 gel a sense Fishrnen wrofe an ariiole abouf fhe 5h rnigraiion graze ihru fhe beginning and when gel lo fhe 5h rnigrafion goung people are going back lo he oiig forjobs nigh life siolltness of suburbia reiired babg boomers go back lo oiiies foo be iheg are fed up wifh suburbia oloser ihings lo do walkabiliig planning is aboui ppl and whai iheg wani ldeniilg he 4 rnigraiions desoribe each and explain if we are sfill in ihe 4h rnigralion
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