Russ 280 Week 4 Notes (class 7 and 8)
Russ 280 Week 4 Notes (class 7 and 8) Russ 280
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madeline Lacman on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Russ 280 at University of South Carolina taught by Prof. Kalb in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Intro to Russian Civilization in Russian at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 02/04/16
Russ 280 Class 7: Schism and Avvakum’s Life Famous scene in “Boris Godunov”- czar asks beggar for prayers Beggar is a Holy Fool o a person that isn’t quite ‘all there’ but it is believed that they have a connection with a higher power speak truth to power (tells czar he is a murderer and walks away scott-free) Russian Church Schism Russia got its Orthodox Christian faith from the Greek Orthodox Church: Cyril and Methodius were Greek monks Over the years some errors in translations from Greek to Slavonic crept into the liturgy Czar Alexei Mikhailovich established a commission to make corrections 1652 Czar appoints Nikon the Patriarch (highest appointment in Russian Orthodox Church) Nikon makes reforms: goal to return to original Greek models rather than error-ridden Slavic ways, as he saw it Most controversial was his order than Russians should cross themselves with 3 fingers, rather than the 2 Russians had tended to use, as well as changing the spelling of Jesus’s name from Isus to Iisus The Raskol (schism, split) Czar supported the reforms, but a group of Moscow priests – including Avvakum – did not o Priests accused Nikon of heresy, but he was supported by a Russian church council This results in the raskol, or split Back to the Old Believers Thought Nikon was Antichrist and rejected the official Church Huge persecution of the Old Believers ensued th Thousands of Old Believers burned themselves alive in the late 17 century o martyrdom preferable to “religion of the Antichrist” Avvakum burned at the stake in 1682 Old Belief survived and does to this day Avvakum Aristocratic Boyarina Morozova supported him o Followed him into the Old Belief o Arrested in 1671 o Tortured and starved to death o Seen as a martyr Lived 1621-1682 Becomes priest at age 23, from Nizhnyi Novgorod, Russia Becomes archpriest, serving in the Kazan Cathedral of the Kremlin in Moscow Exile o Opposes Nikon’s orders to reform o Imprisoned in Moscow o Banished for 11 years to Tobolsk and Dauria in Siberia with wife, Nastasya Markovna, and their children Final years o 1658: Nikon removed as Patriarch o 1664: Avvakum returns to Moscow, czar wants to reconcile o But they still don’t agree on reforms o Avvakum exiled again, then imprisoned o Excommunicated in 1667 o Death of Avvakum: Burned at the Stake in 1682 o Wife and children were buried alive Autobiography o Manuscript is definitely authentic (written in his own hand) o Important to later writers o Features Takes pride in simple, colloquial Russian Uses Church Slavonic at solemn moments Lively, vivid style: characters come to life Seen as first modern work in Russian literature Traditional saint’s life format? But he wrote it himself! Written to garner support for the Old Belief Concept of individual author emerging What qualities do you look for in a saintly figure? (*qualities of Avvakum) Integrity* Unconditional love Life experience* Self-awareness Accountability* Quiet wisdom Generous Spiritual leaders Wit Hardworking* Empathy Leading by example* Forgiving Russ 280 Class 8 Peter the Great, Catherine the Great, Derzhavin Peter the Great, Ruled 1682-1725 Started off working in shipyards and proved himself Created a new capital city, St. Petersburg, focused on Europe Rejects Moscow and closed-off, medieval Russia Turns Russia into an empire Almost 7 feet tall and hugely strong Transformed army, navy, judicial system, and local government Hugely aware of need for education o Russia was highly uneducated during this time o Created academies and forced people to attend them Reshaped his country Old Believers hated him and called him an antichrist His rule was very radical because he wasn’t a ruler based on birthright, he really earned it Foundation of St. Petersburg, 1703 Remains Russian capital and home of the czars until 1917 revolution Built on swamps in an inaccessible place, many died Wanted a port to link Russia to Europe Models it on western cities o Called a “window to the west” o “Venice of the North” Built on canals o Brings in western architects o Based city on classical models such as Rome o Gardens filled with imported ancient statues o Big marble/columned buildings Culture is a little bit different here than in Moscow o Moscow- seat of power, government; circular, medieval, old, eastern, sprawling o St. Petersburg- art, literature; lines, new, European/Western, planned Catherine II (The Great), ruled 1762-1796 German princess deposes husband, Peter III o Peter was very weak, had many enemies, not well-liked o Catherine has many supporters, Peter III is killed o Upon Peter III’s death, Catherine becomes the ruler of Russia Intelligent, strong-willed, practical, energetic, determined Masters Russian and writes plays Russia expands during her rule o Take over new territories Crimea Also famous for her vices Thought to have 21 different love affairs Enlightenment ruler in touch with Europe o Enlightenment (Age of Reason) associated with Catherine in Russia o Influence of French culture: Voltaire, Diderot, etc o Catherine corresponded with many of leading Enlightenment intellectuals of Europe o Russia is again fully a part of Europe (like it was under early Kievan princes) th throughout 17 century frenetically hastened by Peter flourishes under Catherine o Reason, scientific inquiry – founding of academies, universities o During the French Revolution o While Russia missed out on the Renaissance, they get an enlightenment and flourish during this time o Catherine was big on helping women, pushed women to become educated o Faith on human reason and the importance of questioning o Catherine ruled with enlightened despotism***** o Adores Peter the Great, puts up statue of him “Bronze Horseman” in 1782 One of the most famous statues in Russia Created by Falconet Russian Literature in the 18 thCentury Pushkin was born in 1799 As century begins, literature church-oriented: churches control printing presses, no audience for serious secular literature o Elizabeth, Peter’s daughter, was the first to begin putting significance on literature Like the rest of Russia, literature becomes Europeanized, but how to do this? o Questions about spelling, OCS vs. colloquial Russian Turn away from Russia’s own literary models o European models rather than Old Russian literature o primary chronicles and saint’s lives begin to be forgotten until 19th century o Direct influence at first was Poland, then France and Germany o 1730s and 40s: Russians draw on models from European literature of the late 16 and early 17 centuries Verse, then drama, then prose genres developing, memoirs, histories th By the end of the 18 century they have pretty much caught up with Western Europe, are producing similar sorts of literature Gavrila Derzhavin: Neo-Classicism in Russian Culture Writes Horatian ode, modelled after Latin poet Horace “Felicity”1782: an example of Enlightenment praise of a ruler (Catherine): Need for guidance from an enlightened ruler Changes of 18 thCentury Make Pushkin Possible Pushkin: 1799-1837 o Dies in a duel Greatest Russian poet o Father of Russian literature Noble family o Many aristocratic families were so Europeanized and spoke French o His nanny made him love Russian o Makes Russian beautiful as a literary language Rebel internal exile meant he missed 1825 Decembrist Rebellion o Exiled to modern day Muldova Czar Nicholas I becomes his censor o Pushkin allowed to come back to St. Petersburg if Nicholas I reads all of his work and censors it 1833- “Bronze Horseman” o Ode to St. Petersburg o Eugene wants to marry this woman o St. Petersburg floods Goes to island to find the woman and see if she’s okay She’s dead and he loses his mind o Goes to statue of Peter and blames him for the woman’s death Statue comes to life and starts to go after him and kills him o Pro or Anti-Peter? Autocrat imposes something European that ends up killing innocent people Pushkin gets married o Fatal for him o Wife is rumored to have an affair and Pushkin believed it Challenged the other man to a duel January 1837- fatal duel Baron Dontez shoots Pushkin and he dies 2 days later With Pushkin, Russia finds its voice