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MUSI502, Week 2 Notes

by: McKenzie Larson

MUSI502, Week 2 Notes Musi 502

Marketplace > University of New Hampshire > Music > Musi 502 > MUSI502 Week 2 Notes
McKenzie Larson
GPA 3.84

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About this Document

Class Notes from February 2nd and 4th. Sons of Bach, Italian opera, symphony, public concerts, Gluck, Haydn
Music history
Daniel Beller-McKenna
Class Notes
Music, history
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by McKenzie Larson on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Musi 502 at University of New Hampshire taught by Daniel Beller-McKenna in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Music history in Music at University of New Hampshire.


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Date Created: 02/04/16
MUSI502 Week 2: Reading for week 2: page 411-437 February 2, 2016 Review from last week: 4 sons of Bach went on to become professional musicians: WF Bach (1710-1784) - Dresden, Halle CPE Bach (1714-1788) - Berlin, Hamburg JCF Bach (1732-1795) - Buckenburg JC Bach (1735-1782) - Milan, London (Only son to work outside of Germany) Opera and Opera Reform in the mid-eighteenth century: Italian Comic Opera: Opera Buffa: designed to relieve the serious Italian opera of the time - constant succession of recitative and aria - Intermezzo: Entertainments between acts of serious operas - local dialects, names, events - easy to digest characters - no castrati (remained a main feature of opera in the 18th century, but it was extremely unnatural - a major characteristic of the comic opera was its natural feeling). - Intermezzo featured short, repeated phrases and naturally reflected any situation. - Comic Italian opera came to comment on everything that was wrong with serious Italian culture (issues with government) - Giovanni Battista Pergolesi (1710-1736) - La serva Padrona (1732) - became a huge hit across Europe, most popular opera of the mid-18th century - The acts of the intermezzo would be performed once in between the first and second act of the opera seria and once between the second and third. - Paris and Italian Intermezzo - “Querelle des bouffons” (1752) (Quarrel of the Buffoons) - There was a longstanding tradition of using Italian opera to be subversive in the French court. Classicism: - Greek Roman Principles ofArt andArchitecture - Revival in mid 18th century (Remember the Renaissance similarities) - Reaction against excesses of Baroque - Winckelmann - Geschichte der Kunst derAltertums (1764) (History ofAncientArt) - Book about Greek and Roman Sculpture and architecture - “Noble simplicity, silent grandeur” - Symmetry and Balance in architecture and art - very important - Represents subtle artistic values of the time period that continues to appear more and more in music of the time Orpheus in Opera: Gluck (1714-1787) - Went from Germany to Italy to London Reform of Italian Opera - Incorporation of elements from French tragedy lyrique Orfeo ed Euridice (Calzibigi) - Premiered on October 5, 1762 in Vienna - Presented a “classical” style and outlook on the well-known story - During this time we won’t find strict form to the opera - there is repetition but it unfolds in a very natural way. Symphony: Origins in early 18th Century Italian Opera - SinfoniaAvanti L’opera - Emphasis on elevating it from flashy music to serious music February 4, 2016 Gluck’s Reforms (Preface toAlceste, 1769) 1. No showing off by singers - “suitcase arias” - singers had become accustomed to bringing their own arias and Gluck was adamantly against them doing that and using excessive ornamentation. 2. Overture related to opera - an idea, but doesn’t become important until end of 19th century 3. More expressive recitative (no secco) - minimal accompaniment (harpsichord accompaniment) up until now but Gluck found it to be artificial and he wanted the thread of sound to continue throughout, getting away from the formulaic form of drama. 4. Loosening of forms - Gluck borrowed heavily from French opera (tragedy lyrique) - brought newly into the Italian opera tradition. Italian opera was the dominant form until the end of the 19th century. - Da capo aria - recit-aria format - chorus and dance integrated 5. Less repetition of text in arias 6. Simpler melodies 7. Less distinction between aria and recitative Symphony: - The symphony becomes a tradition for the public (outside of the opera house). - Depends on the rise of the public concert to become successful. - String dominated but will get complimented by wind instruments in the 18th century - Italian Three Movement FormAdopted in Germany - More Intricate themes - Idea of Development - Distinct and Contrasting Themes - Mannheim - Attention to Show and Display - Orchestra known throughout Europe for its excellence and precision - hired best instruments they could find and composers wrote great people because of their high quality players. - Greater use of winds - Emphasis on instruments Public Concerts: - Paris: Concert Spirituel, 1725-1790 - Spiritual works - Milan: Sammartini Lenten Concerts 1730- - Sammartini composed pieces for Lent - London: Bach/Abel concerts, 1765-1781 - Closest thing to the modern concerts (based on subscriptions often) - Leipzig: Gewandhaus, 1781 - There wasn’t a thriving public concert scene until 30 years after Bach died. - Vienna: Society for the Friends of Music - No public concert life until the 19th century Franz Joseph Haydn 1732-1809 * Look at slide for biography - Haydn is the last composer that we’re going to focus on that was brought up in an employee, a celebrated employee but he thrived in that environment as an employee to a wealthy family. - Was not brought up in a royal family. - Studied J.J. Fux independently before being hired as a composer. - Produced lots of high quality music for string ensembles (string quartets) - approx. 104 symphonies composed (probably more like 110) - “Farewell” symphony: each player had a candle and as they dropped out they blew out their candle until there was only 2 violins left (one of them was Haydn) - metaphor


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