Socialism and Communism Lecture Notes
Socialism and Communism Lecture Notes History 1020-009
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elisabeth Buck on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 1020-009 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Giustino in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see World History 2 in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/04/16
History 1020 Jan. 26, 2016 Socialism and Communism Industrial Revolution and Classical Liberalism i. Discuss technological changes in the Industrial Revolution ii. Discuss social changes in the Industrial Revolution iii. What were three values of "classical" liberalism? iv. When did universal adult suffrage come to England and Belgium? - the Industrial Revolution began around 1750 in Great Britain then diffused around the globe 1. technological and social changes - Technological (study question i): - entailed the constant introduction of machinery and improvement to existing types of machines. - Loom, Flying Shuttle, Spinning Jenny, Water Frame, Steam Engine, Coal Mining - New machines were operated by human power or water power. In quick time, the machines were hooked onto steam engines. - CHANGE HAPPENED IN AN EXTREMELY RAPID RATE (this is new!!) - Social (study question ii): - IR caused internal migration - disease was spread, air pollution, middle class was small - lower class was large - old familiar world was deteriorating… lots of change!! - owners of factories were wealthy, workers were not 2. textile production; mechanization of textile production - unleashed as machines are used more and more with the rise of the Industrial Revolution - changed with a new kind of loom (flying shuttle) - prior to 1750, most was done using human labor, whereas after 1750 more and more came to be done using machines (looms were used before and after start of Industrial Revolution) - done mostly from homes, prior to IR there were no factories 3. loom, weave, warp, shuttle - loom: consists of warp string, weave, and shuttle - textile making - warp: vertical strings - weave: horizontal strings (moves, back and forth) - shuttle: device for passing weave strings through warp strings 4. flying shuttle (invented by John Kay in 1733) - invented in England - introduced machines to work on textile production - pully, hammer, lever: human labor was only used to pull lever (easier and quicker to weave cloth) - introduced new efficiency to textile production 5. spinning jenny (invented by James Hargreaves in 1764) - rapidly spun string for the flying shuttle - spun a lot more than one bundle at the same time; making it more efficient - one big problem: spring that was spun wasn’t particularly strong string (couldn’t be warp of loom) 6. water frame (invented by Richard Arkwright in 1769; he was also called “father of the factory”) - used water power to stretch out water before it was spun; makes it stronger - invention of this was further technological change - made the flying shuttle more efficient - too expensive and too large for ordinary people to have in their homes - Arkwright built specific buildings to hold water frame - the first factories (housing of industrial machinery) 7. steam engine (invented by Thomas Newcomen in 1712; then made more efficient by James Watt in 1765) - predates the start of the IR : see “technological changes” - Newcomen’s steam engine used a lot of energy and produced little power (inefficient) - Watt made improvements - now used less energy and produced much more power - could now be hooked up to the machines that were producing textiles and other machines, leading to the “take off” of the IR 8. coal mining - powering the IR - powered the steam engines and the other machines used 9. internal migration from countryside to cities (urbanization) - migration within country from countryside to cities - increasing job opportunities in cities - 1750: 13% of England’s population lived in towns & cities - 1900: 87% of England’s population lived in towns & cities’ - urbanization: the process of the population moving to more urban settings 10.Liverpool; Birmingham; Manchester; London (capital) - Liverpool: new, grew in IR - Birmingham: new, grew in IR - Manchester: new, grew in IR - London: was not new, but was increasingly industrialized, factories surrounding it and workers living there. 11. cholera, typhus, tuberculosis, and diphtheria - living conditions were generally miserable - crowed run down buildings which lacked basic hygiene - cholera, typhus, tuberculosis, and diphtheria: spread vastly due to lack of basic hygiene and crowded, dirty living conditions - peoples diets housed these diseases (didn’t help fight it off) - people didn’t know how diseases were spread… until Robert Koch 12. Robert Koch: called “father of microbiology; discovered tuberculosis bacillus (1882) and vibrio cholera (1883) - germ theory - used microscopes (relatively new invention) to discover germs that caused diseases - 1881: first person to argue that if you were a doctor preforming surgery, you had to clean your medical tools before you operated on another person - 1882: discovered tuberculosis bacillus - 1883: discovered vibrio cholera 13. air pollution (respiratory diseases: asthma and lung cancer) - coal mining produced pollution (heavy soot caused respiratory diseases) 14.acid rain (sulphur dioxide) - coal burning caused this; sulfur dioxide is released - acid rain is very toxic (kills forests, fish, and deteriorates buildings) 15. Robert Smith, Acid and Rain (1872) - one of the first studies of acid rain 16. bourgeoisie (nineteenth-century term for middle class) - factory owners belonged to the middle class!! - small social class, before 1900 never amounted to more than 15% of the population (there were always more workers, poor people) - founders of political tradition : “classical” liberalism 17. "classical" liberalism (not same as present-day liberalism) - members of bourgeoisie - NO universal suffrage - only men of wealth should have the right to vote - (study question iii) - first value: the government should never interfere with economy (laissez-faire); guided by invisible laws of nature (gov. couldn’t get involved with private property - second value: faith in vision of linear historical progress (dark to light, straight line - history moves forward to positivity) - third value: representative government (did not want King/Queen to rule alone) - had to be a parliament 18.socialism, communism, and nationalism - all unleashed by IR 19. **laissez-faire (“hands off”); private property - originated in Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations - government cannot interfere 20. Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations (1776) 21. linear historical progress - IMAGE 22.Reason (the capacity for rational thought) - rational prepacity: engine of progress - not everybody gets to participate to progress (women, non-European’s, not over European decent, the poor) - was exalted (capital R) 23.parliamentary government (elected representatives) - discussed legal proposals, passed laws - ideal form of government for “classical” liberalism 24.universal adult suffrage vs. universal male suffrage - (universal suffrage) not supported by classical liberalism - adult: all adults can vote - male: only males over a certain age can vote - all attempts to get suffrage failed (study question iv) - MALE ONLY was 1918 in England (last year of WW1) - one man, one vote - ADULTS was 1928 in England - BELGIUM: 1893, all men over 25 got the right to vote (not based on one man, one vote) - men of high taxes got 3 votes (wealthy) - men of low/none got 1 vote (poor) - BELGIUM: Women got right to vote in 1948 25. principle of one-man/one-vote - In England, everybody got one vote - In Belgium, changed to one man, one vote in 1918 26.utopian socialism and scientific socialism **change to voting rights came slowly**
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