Nationalism and Unification of Germany Lecture Notes
Nationalism and Unification of Germany Lecture Notes History 1020-009
Popular in World History 2
Popular in History
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elisabeth Buck on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 1020-009 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Giustino in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see World History 2 in History at Auburn University.
Reviews for Nationalism and Unification of Germany Lecture Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/04/16
Feb. 2, 2016 Nationalism and Unification of Germany **Read “Exam Study Instructions” on Canvas (First Exam on February 18)** Nationalism and Unification of Germany i. What resulted from the FrankfurtAssembly? ii. Describe details of the Prussian Constitution of 1850. iii. What caused & resulted from theAustro-Prussian War? iv. What caused & resulted from the Franco-Prussian War? 1. nationalism - can mean loyalty to ones country (a country to be loyal to) - feelings of common national identity - common language, common shared traditions, shared past -19th century Germany Nationalism lead to… - Jan 18th, 1871 : the date of independent GermanyALL JOINED - outbreak of WW1 (1914-1918) - outbreak of WW2 (until 1945) - Nazi holocaust 2. Prussia (capital = Berlin) -1850, largest in central Europe were Prussia and Hasburg Monarchy/Austro-Hungary - largely uni-cultural (mostly Germans) - felt German as their national identity 3. Habsburg Monarchy (capital=Vienna; renamedAustro-Hungary in 1867) - very complex state (large unified state) - ethnic composition was very multicultural consisting of many different ethnic groups (rivalries) - Germans, Czechs, Slovaks, Poles, Magyars, and Italians - they didn't have the same national loyalties - German was main language 4. Germans, Czechs, Slovaks, Poles, Magyars, and Italians - many ethnic groups in Habsburg Monarchy (rivalries, was very multicultural) 5. 37 other Central European states in 1850 - smaller, independent states aside from the two largest (prior to unified Germany) - intense political fragmentation in 1850 (no unification) - mostly uni-cultural (mostly German composition) 6. FrankfurtAssembly & constitutional monarchy - (Study question i) - started to meet in May of 1848, marked the effort to create a unified Germany, met until May of 1849 - composed of mostly middle-class men whose goal was to create a Constitution for unified Germany - idealistic, for a state that doesn’t exist = this was their goal! - The constitution they created was for a unified Germany and that there were ONLY Germans, Hapsburg Monarchy was not included; only for Prussia and other 37 smaller states. - State led by Constitutional monarchy: King/Queen shares power with a parliament made up of elected representatives - most men over the age of 25 were to have the right to vote, but NOT poor men (they did not have Reason) - gave power to King/Queen and parliament was one where the King/Queen was given a lot of power; power to dissolve the parliament if he/she didn't agree with them - the best way to bring their constitution into play, the presented it to Fredrick William IV 7. Frederick William IV (Prussian King from 1840-1861) - asked to be the first monarch by accepting their Constitution - he refused this offer !! - remained the King of Prussia until 1861: wanted to be able to maintain his power so he made some changes to bring political stability -1850, wrote his own Prussian Constitution 8. "a crown from the gutter” - Quote from Frederick William IV as he refused the Constitution - He wouldn’t accept it because the members of the FrankfortAssembly because they were the middle class - He would only accept leadership from other members of his social class (he is higher than him) 9. Prussian Constitution of 1850 - (Study question ii 9-11) - made by Fredrick William IV in 1850 - called for a Constitutional monarchy - called the Prussian Diet : refers to the Prussian parliament - universal male suffrage could vote for Prussian diet - structured as the three-class franchise 10. Prussian Diet & the three-class franchise - electorate was broken into three franchises - top was wealthiest men : 5% - second most wealthy men (paid taxes): 12.6% - not wealthy enough to pay taxes: 82.7% - each franchise got a vote (117 seats) - the two top tiers would vote together so they would win (weighted) -left tremendous power to the King, power to appoint or remove all minsters of state (ie. secretary of state…, the cabinet) 11. Minister-President - chief minister - made sure everyone did what the King wanted - in charge of the Prussian diet 12. Junker - Prussian aristocrats 13. Otto von Bismarck (lived 1815-1898) -wanted unification of German (leader of German unification) - in the Junker class - only wanted unified Germany to be Prussia and 37 other states (NOT Hapsburg Monarchy) - strong German nationalist - 1862, named Minister-President over the Prussian Diet - new King of Prussia (William I) - let it be known that he wanted a unified Germany and he has specific ideas on how he was going to do that - Speech on unified Germany in September of … Iron and Blood (war) to create a strong unified Germany 14. William I (Prussian King from 1861 to 1890) -unification of Germany that Bismarck fueled. 15. "iron and blood” -Bismarck’s strategy to unify Germany - He looked for opportunities to provoke wars 16. Austro-Prussian War (also called Seven Weeks War) -(Study Question iii) -Began in 1866, was intentional from Bismarck - fought between Prussia and Hapsburg Monarchy - started because he provoked them by intentionally mismanaging an area of Europe called Schleswig Holstein - both Prussia and HM were co-rulers of Schleswig Holstein - threatened by the thought of this - HM mobilized for war in June 15th, 1866 was over by July (7 weeks) - ended quickly because the HM army as out-of-date while Prussian army was very modern - peace terms: the HM could no longer be involved in any affairs of other central European states - Prussia was free to try to take over smaller states (the other 37 states) - by 1867, all Northern stretch of central Europe was taken over by Prussia by Bismarck 17. Schleswig and Holstein 18. North German Confederation -new states in 1867: comprised of Prussia and 21 other states in the Northern Stretch of central Europe -first step to German Unification - new German state, KING OF PRUSSIAWAS KING OF THIS TOO - Prussian laws were enforced throughout - 16 states were not taken over by Prussia at this time… Bismarck wanted them all… SO he initiated the Franco-Prussian War (they watched with great interest - pushed them to join due to national pride or fear) ** Study Question iv ** 19. Franco-Prussian War (July 15th, 1870 until January 1871 - Prussian defeats French through Northern German Confederation) -(Study Question iv) - Sept of 1868 - in Spain, where was an overthrow of the government (coup d’etat) - temporary government to see what the real would be (test) - wanted the King to be from the Hohenzollern Royal Family - royal family of Prussia - France (neighbor to Spain) was horrified by a Hohenzollern to lead because Prussia and France did not get along.Also, they would be surrounded by their enemies on all sides. - July 13, 1870 France sends French ambassador to talk to King William I telling him not to put a member of their royal family on Spain’s thrown 20. coup d'etat 21. Hohenzollern Royal Family; Bourbon Royal Family -royal family of Prussia - French Royal family is Boubon Family 22. Ems Telegram; Count Vincent Benedetti - Benedetti made his request (french ambassador #19) - Ems Telegram: documented what happened in their meeting - Bismarck took the Ems Telegram and rewrote it, to bravely insult French national pride (saying he was insulting) - leaked this to the press and the the French government - France declared war on Prussia because of this 23. German Reich (Reich means empire) - Jan 18, 1871 : all 38 states joined together unified - King of Prussia was declared the head (emperor of the Germans) 24. Hall of Mirrors in Versailles (Near Paris) -German Reich was official here - unified Germany -Sacred french space (not the capital) - more hostility - emperor was crowned here 25. World War I (1914-1918); World War II (1939-1945) - Hostility between German Reich and French **communist manifesto 1848** -also known of revolution in European history -1867Austro-Hungary was formed
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'