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Nationalism and Unification of Germany Lecture Notes

by: Elisabeth Buck

Nationalism and Unification of Germany Lecture Notes History 1020-009

Marketplace > Auburn University > History > History 1020-009 > Nationalism and Unification of Germany Lecture Notes
Elisabeth Buck
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World History 2
Dr. Giustino
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elisabeth Buck on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 1020-009 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Giustino in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see World History 2 in History at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 02/04/16
Feb. 2, 2016 Nationalism and Unification of Germany **Read “Exam Study Instructions” on Canvas (First Exam on February 18)** Nationalism and Unification of Germany i. What resulted from the FrankfurtAssembly? ii. Describe details of the Prussian Constitution of 1850. iii. What caused & resulted from theAustro-Prussian War? iv. What caused & resulted from the Franco-Prussian War? 1. nationalism - can mean loyalty to ones country (a country to be loyal to) - feelings of common national identity - common language, common shared traditions, shared past -19th century Germany Nationalism lead to… - Jan 18th, 1871 : the date of independent GermanyALL JOINED - outbreak of WW1 (1914-1918) - outbreak of WW2 (until 1945) - Nazi holocaust 2. Prussia (capital = Berlin) -1850, largest in central Europe were Prussia and Hasburg Monarchy/Austro-Hungary - largely uni-cultural (mostly Germans) - felt German as their national identity 3. Habsburg Monarchy (capital=Vienna; renamedAustro-Hungary in 1867) - very complex state (large unified state) - ethnic composition was very multicultural consisting of many different ethnic groups (rivalries) - Germans, Czechs, Slovaks, Poles, Magyars, and Italians - they didn't have the same national loyalties - German was main language 4. Germans, Czechs, Slovaks, Poles, Magyars, and Italians - many ethnic groups in Habsburg Monarchy (rivalries, was very multicultural) 5. 37 other Central European states in 1850 - smaller, independent states aside from the two largest (prior to unified Germany) - intense political fragmentation in 1850 (no unification) - mostly uni-cultural (mostly German composition) 6. FrankfurtAssembly & constitutional monarchy - (Study question i) - started to meet in May of 1848, marked the effort to create a unified Germany, met until May of 1849 - composed of mostly middle-class men whose goal was to create a Constitution for unified Germany - idealistic, for a state that doesn’t exist = this was their goal! - The constitution they created was for a unified Germany and that there were ONLY Germans, Hapsburg Monarchy was not included; only for Prussia and other 37 smaller states. - State led by Constitutional monarchy: King/Queen shares power with a parliament made up of elected representatives - most men over the age of 25 were to have the right to vote, but NOT poor men (they did not have Reason) - gave power to King/Queen and parliament was one where the King/Queen was given a lot of power; power to dissolve the parliament if he/she didn't agree with them - the best way to bring their constitution into play, the presented it to Fredrick William IV 7. Frederick William IV (Prussian King from 1840-1861) - asked to be the first monarch by accepting their Constitution - he refused this offer !! - remained the King of Prussia until 1861: wanted to be able to maintain his power so he made some changes to bring political stability -1850, wrote his own Prussian Constitution 8. "a crown from the gutter” - Quote from Frederick William IV as he refused the Constitution - He wouldn’t accept it because the members of the FrankfortAssembly because they were the middle class - He would only accept leadership from other members of his social class (he is higher than him) 9. Prussian Constitution of 1850 - (Study question ii 9-11) - made by Fredrick William IV in 1850 - called for a Constitutional monarchy - called the Prussian Diet : refers to the Prussian parliament - universal male suffrage could vote for Prussian diet - structured as the three-class franchise 10. Prussian Diet & the three-class franchise - electorate was broken into three franchises - top was wealthiest men : 5% - second most wealthy men (paid taxes): 12.6% - not wealthy enough to pay taxes: 82.7% - each franchise got a vote (117 seats) - the two top tiers would vote together so they would win (weighted) -left tremendous power to the King, power to appoint or remove all minsters of state (ie. secretary of state…, the cabinet) 11. Minister-President - chief minister - made sure everyone did what the King wanted - in charge of the Prussian diet 12. Junker - Prussian aristocrats 13. Otto von Bismarck (lived 1815-1898) -wanted unification of German (leader of German unification) - in the Junker class - only wanted unified Germany to be Prussia and 37 other states (NOT Hapsburg Monarchy) - strong German nationalist - 1862, named Minister-President over the Prussian Diet - new King of Prussia (William I) - let it be known that he wanted a unified Germany and he has specific ideas on how he was going to do that - Speech on unified Germany in September of … Iron and Blood (war) to create a strong unified Germany 14. William I (Prussian King from 1861 to 1890) -unification of Germany that Bismarck fueled. 15. "iron and blood” -Bismarck’s strategy to unify Germany - He looked for opportunities to provoke wars 16. Austro-Prussian War (also called Seven Weeks War) -(Study Question iii) -Began in 1866, was intentional from Bismarck - fought between Prussia and Hapsburg Monarchy - started because he provoked them by intentionally mismanaging an area of Europe called Schleswig Holstein - both Prussia and HM were co-rulers of Schleswig Holstein - threatened by the thought of this - HM mobilized for war in June 15th, 1866 was over by July (7 weeks) - ended quickly because the HM army as out-of-date while Prussian army was very modern - peace terms: the HM could no longer be involved in any affairs of other central European states - Prussia was free to try to take over smaller states (the other 37 states) - by 1867, all Northern stretch of central Europe was taken over by Prussia by Bismarck 17. Schleswig and Holstein 18. North German Confederation -new states in 1867: comprised of Prussia and 21 other states in the Northern Stretch of central Europe -first step to German Unification - new German state, KING OF PRUSSIAWAS KING OF THIS TOO - Prussian laws were enforced throughout - 16 states were not taken over by Prussia at this time… Bismarck wanted them all… SO he initiated the Franco-Prussian War (they watched with great interest - pushed them to join due to national pride or fear) ** Study Question iv ** 19. Franco-Prussian War (July 15th, 1870 until January 1871 - Prussian defeats French through Northern German Confederation) -(Study Question iv) - Sept of 1868 - in Spain, where was an overthrow of the government (coup d’etat) - temporary government to see what the real would be (test) - wanted the King to be from the Hohenzollern Royal Family - royal family of Prussia - France (neighbor to Spain) was horrified by a Hohenzollern to lead because Prussia and France did not get along.Also, they would be surrounded by their enemies on all sides. - July 13, 1870 France sends French ambassador to talk to King William I telling him not to put a member of their royal family on Spain’s thrown 20. coup d'etat 21. Hohenzollern Royal Family; Bourbon Royal Family -royal family of Prussia - French Royal family is Boubon Family 22. Ems Telegram; Count Vincent Benedetti - Benedetti made his request (french ambassador #19) - Ems Telegram: documented what happened in their meeting - Bismarck took the Ems Telegram and rewrote it, to bravely insult French national pride (saying he was insulting) - leaked this to the press and the the French government - France declared war on Prussia because of this 23. German Reich (Reich means empire) - Jan 18, 1871 : all 38 states joined together unified - King of Prussia was declared the head (emperor of the Germans) 24. Hall of Mirrors in Versailles (Near Paris) -German Reich was official here - unified Germany -Sacred french space (not the capital) - more hostility - emperor was crowned here 25. World War I (1914-1918); World War II (1939-1945) - Hostility between German Reich and French **communist manifesto 1848** -also known of revolution in European history -1867Austro-Hungary was formed


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