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Chapter 3 Chemistry notes

by: Elisha Hanson

Chapter 3 Chemistry notes Chem 121

Marketplace > Eastern Michigan University > Chemistry > Chem 121 > Chapter 3 Chemistry notes
Elisha Hanson
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General Chemistry 1

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These notes cover grams to moles and percent yield and chemical formulas.
General Chemistry 1
Class Notes




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elisha Hanson on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 121 at Eastern Michigan University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at Eastern Michigan University.

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Date Created: 02/04/16
Chemistry Chapter 3 Notes Stoichiometry Mass Formulas and Reactions The composition of earth Formation of Earth Fe and Ni are the densest elements and sank to form the solid inner core Outer core elements are less dense form a molten layer Asteroids and volcanic eruptions ejected glasses which formed the atmosphere Earth39s early atmosphere contained little 02 and much H20 C02 NH3 SOx and NOx compounds The mole A mole is a unit for a specific number 0 1 dozen 12 miles 0 1 mole 6002X10quot23 particles also known as Avogadro39s number A mole is Avogadro39s number of atoms in exactly 12 grams of carbon12 Convenient unit for expressing macroscopic quantities atoms or molecules involved in chemical reactions Mole as a conversion factor To convert between number or particles and an equivalent number of moles These are conversion factor of particles X 1 mole6022X10quot23 particles of moles of mole X 6022X10quot23particles1 mole of particles Mole mass The mass in grams equal to the mass of an individual atom or molecule in amu The mass in grams of one mole of the substance atom molecule or formula unit 0 1 atom of He 4003amu o 1 mole of He 6022x10quot23 atoms 40039 The molar mass M of He is 4003gmol Molar mass of compounds Mass of one molecule of a molecular compound Sum of The aTomic masses of The aToms in ThaT compound Example 0 C02 C 20 1201 21600 4401 amu 1 molecule Formula mass Mass in aTomic mass uniTs of one formula uniT of an ionic compound eg NaCl 5843gmol Conversions moles To mass To inTerconverT beTween moles and mass use molar mass Grams x 1molg moles Grams x g 1mo moe Conversions parTicles To moles To mass Conversion facTor Conversion facTor Grams x 1molg moles x6022x10quot231molparTicles Grams x g1mol moles x1moI6022x10623parTices Chemical equaTions Chemical equaTions describe chemical reacTions Shows formulas of reacTanTs and producTs SeparaTes reacTanTs The subsTances ThaT are consumed and producTs The subsTances ThaT are formed wiTh an arrow singles or double headed Describes proporTions of reacTanTs and producTs during a chemical reacTion using coefficienTs May include condiTions HeaT energy caTalysTs eTc and or physical sTaTe of producTs reacTanTs s solid I liquid g Gas aq aqueous soln Chemical reacTions ReacTanTs gt producTs Sulfur Trioxide waTer gt sulfuric acid So3g HZOI gt HZSO4I Law of conservaTion of mass The law of conservation of mass The sum of The masses of The reacTanTs of a chemical equaTion is equal To The sum of The masses of The producTs SToichiomeTry describes The quanTiTaTive relaTionship beTween The subsTances in a reacTion IndicaTed in chemical equaTion by coefficienTs FeZO3s 3HZSO4aq gt 3HZOI Fe2SO43aq CoefficienT applies To enTire formula following iT Subscrist apply only To The elemenT preceding iT Balanced chemical equaTions Since balanced chemical equaTions follow The law of conservaTion of mass Then 0 ToTal mass of each elemenT on The reacTanT side musT equal The ToTal mass of each elemenT on The producT side 0 ToTal charge of reacTanTs side musT equal The ToTal charge of producT side 0 The kinds of elemenT on The reacTanT side musT be The same as Those on The producT side Balancing chemical equaTions Four sTep approach 0 1 WriTe correcT formulas for reacTanTs and producTs o 2 Balance an elemenT ThaT appears in only one reacTanT and producT firsT o 3 Choose coefficienTs To balance oTher elemenTs as needed 0 4 Balance any elemenT ThaT is noT parT of a compound lasT CH49 NH39 gt HCN9 H29 ReacTanTs gt producTs E lemenTs ReacTanT side ProducT side Balanced C 1 1 Checked N 1 1 Checked H 437 133 X Balancing chemical equations CH4g NH3g gt HCNg 3 H29 Elements Reactant side Product side Balanced C 1 1 Checked N 1 1 Checked H 437 13x27 Checked Balancing reaction example N205g H20g gt HNOZI 2 N 1 2 cross the 1 off 6 O 3 6 cross the 3 off 2 H 1 2 cross the 1 off Combustion reactions Reactions between oxygen 02 and another element in a compound 0 4 5029 2 029 gt 4 5039 Hydrocarbons molecular compounds composed of only hydrogen and carbon 0 O O 0 If sufficient amount of 02 is present complete combustion occurs CH4g 2 029 gt CoZg 2 H20g If less 02 is present incomplete combustion occurs 2 CH4g 3 029 gt 2 co 4 H20 CO as an air pollutant Health Effects binds more strongly to hemoglobin in cells than does oxygen thus Reducing amount of oxygen to body cells and tissues gt1000ppm for 4hours blocks about 60 of hemoglobin sites usually resulting in death Symptoms Dizziness impaired judgement Slowed reflexes Loss of consciousness Headache drowsiness RespiraTory failure DeaTh InhalaTion of pure oxygen may reverse depending on lengTh of exposure and concenTraTion RespiraTion and photosynthesis PhoTosynThesis planTs converT 602 and H20 inTo glucose 0 6 CoZg 6 HZOI gt C6H1206aq 6 02g RespiraTion reverse or phoTosynThesis 0 Living organisms use glucose as a source of energy and reTurn CoZ To The aTmosphere o C6H1206aq 602g gt 6 CoZg 6 HZOI CombusTion of hydrocarbons o ReTurns 68x 10 12 kgyr of C To aTmosphere SToichiomeTry Describes The quanTiTaTive relaTionship beTween The subsTances in a reacTion The coefficienTs can be used To creaTe a mole raTio Fe203s 3 HZSO4aq gt 3 HZOI Fe2SO43aq The raTio of H2504 To Fe2SO43 is 3 moles HZSO41mole FeSO43 The mole raTio is a conversion facTorl PercenT yield TheoreTical yield The calculaTed amounT of producT formed based on The amounT of limiTing reacTanT AcTual yield The measured amounT of producT formed PercenT yield acTual yield TheoreTical yield X 100 Empirical vs molecular formulas Simples whole number molar raTio of elemenTs in a compound Need The percenT composiTion Molecular formula AcTual molar raTio of elemenTs in a compound Equal To some mulTiple of empirical formula Need empirical formula and molecular mass CombusTion analysis composiTion of organic compounds C H and someTimes O can be deTermined in a combusTion analysis using an apparaTus like The one below This provides The empirical formula Mass specTromeTry and molecular mass To deTermine molecular formula you need 0 Empirical formula 0 Molecular mass Mass specTromeTers are insTrumenTs To deTermine The mass of subsTances o ConverT molecules inTo ions 0 SeparaTe ions based on mass charge raTio LimiTing reacTanTs Hydrogen and oxygen reacT To form waTer 2H2g 029 gt 2H20g H2g whiTe 02g red Whish runs ouT firsT LimiTing reacTanTs subsTance ThaT is compIeTer consumed in The chemical reacTion DeTermines limiTs The amounT of producT ThaT can be formed during The reacTion IdenTified by 0 Number of moles of reacTanTs o SToichiomeTry of balanced chemical equaTion


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