Ch. 7 notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jamila Ruffin on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Laura Whitaker in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.
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Date Created: 02/04/16
Ch. 7 Notes Any type of rock can be reformed into any other type of rock Metamorphism transition of one rock into another be applying: 1. High temperature 2. Pressure 3. High temperature fluid Agents of Metamorphism: 1. Temperature (heat) nearby magma body and geothermal gradient 2. Pressure applied equally in all directions, increases with depth, and mineral grained become more packed in Pressure differential pressure that isn’t equal on all sides, rock is distorted, and occurs during deformation 3. Fluids water and other volatiles and enhances migration Where does the water come from? Pore spaces of sedimentary rocks Fractures in igneous rocks Hydrated minerals 4. Parent rock mineral makeup determines the degree to which change will occur Result of Metamorphism 1. Recrystallization atoms rearrange into new crystalline configuration *Ex if a rock is composed by quartz, the tetrahedrons will reorganize in different configuration 2. New mineral growth bonds between atoms in the minerals break and new form, resulting in new mineral 3. Metasomatism rock composition alters by removing/ adding new elements into the rock *Ex as water cools down, a new mineral may precipitate/ add to the rock Types of Metamorphism 1. Contact (thermal) temperature of the hosting rock rises as magma flows through it due to friction between them 2. Burial the changes are only due to weight of overburden or temperature increases only due to geothermal gradient 3. Hydrothermal chemical alteration caused when hot, ion fluids circulate through cracks Types of Metaphoric Rocks 1. Foliated 2. Weaklyfoliated 3. Nonfoliated *Example of metamorphism shale A finegrained sedimentary rock Forms from compaction of silt and claysize mineral particles How does shale change when we apply high temperature and pressure? 1. Clay minerals start being replaced by mica crystals 2. It transforms into slate and continues to grow larger and align 3. It transforms into phyllite and creates a shiny luster 4. Then transforms into schist and migrate and form bands Main types of foliated textures Slaty cleavage planar surfaces along which rocks split Schistosity platy minerals exhibit layered structure Gneissic high grade metamorphic, minerals segregate, and banded appearance Slate Very fine grained Slaty cleavage Generated from low grade metamorphism of shale Phyllite Minerals not large enough to be identified Glossy sheen and wavy surfaces Fine crystals of muscovite and chlorite Schist Medium to course grained Micas predominate Schistosity texture Gneiss Medium to course grained Banded appearance Highgrade metamorphism Nonfoliated (marble and quartzite) Deformation is minimal Equidimensional crystals Porphyroblastic Large grains surrounded by finegrained matrix of minerals Metamorphic grade: indicates the intensity of metamorphism or the degree of metamorphic change Plate tectonics Continentcontinent collisions Edges of plate deforms Major mountainsAlps, Himayalas, etc—are metamorphic Subduction zones Distinct linear belts of metamorphic rocks High pressure, low temperature zones nearest the trench High temperature, low pressure zones further island
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