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Ch. 7 notes

by: Jamila Ruffin

Ch. 7 notes GEO 101

Jamila Ruffin
GPA 3.5

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ch. 7 notes
The Dynamic Earth
Laura Whitaker
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jamila Ruffin on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Laura Whitaker in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.


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Date Created: 02/04/16
Ch. 7 Notes  Any type of rock can be reformed into any other type of rock  Metamorphism­ transition of one rock into another be applying: 1. High temperature 2. Pressure 3. High temperature fluid  Agents of Metamorphism: 1. Temperature (heat)­ nearby magma body and geothermal gradient 2. Pressure­ applied equally in all directions, increases with depth, and mineral  grained become more packed in  Pressure differential­ pressure that isn’t equal on all sides, rock is  distorted, and occurs during deformation 3. Fluids­ water and other volatiles and enhances migration  Where does the water come from?  Pore spaces of sedimentary rocks  Fractures in igneous rocks  Hydrated minerals 4. Parent rock­ mineral make­up determines the degree to which change will occur Result of Metamorphism 1. Recrystallization­ atoms re­arrange into new crystalline configuration *Ex­ if a rock is composed by quartz, the tetrahedrons will reorganize in  different configuration 2. New mineral growth­ bonds between atoms in the minerals break and new  form, resulting in new mineral 3. Metasomatism­ rock composition alters by removing/ adding new elements  into the rock *Ex­ as water cools down, a new mineral may precipitate/ add to the rock Types of Metamorphism 1. Contact (thermal)­ temperature of the hosting rock rises as magma flows  through it due to friction between them 2. Burial­ the changes are only due to weight of overburden or temperature  increases only due to geothermal gradient 3. Hydrothermal­ chemical alteration caused when hot, ion fluids circulate  through cracks  Types of Metaphoric Rocks 1. Foliated 2. Weakly­foliated 3. Non­foliated *Example of metamorphism­ shale  A fine­grained sedimentary rock  Forms from compaction of silt and clay­size mineral particles How does shale change when we apply high temperature and pressure? 1. Clay minerals start being replaced by mica crystals 2. It transforms into slate and continues to grow larger and align 3. It transforms into phyllite and creates a shiny luster 4. Then transforms into schist and migrate and form bands Main types of foliated textures  Slaty cleavage­ planar surfaces along which rocks split  Schistosity­ platy minerals exhibit layered structure  Gneissic­ high grade metamorphic, minerals segregate, and banded appearance Slate Very fine grained Slaty cleavage  Generated from low grade metamorphism of shale Phyllite Minerals not large enough to be identified Glossy sheen and wavy surfaces Fine crystals of muscovite and chlorite Schist Medium to course grained Micas predominate Schistosity texture Gneiss  Medium to course grained  Banded appearance  High­grade metamorphism Nonfoliated (marble and quartzite)  Deformation is minimal  Equidimensional crystals Porphyroblastic Large grains surrounded by fine­grained matrix of minerals Metamorphic   grade:   indicates   the   intensity   of   metamorphism   or   the   degree   of metamorphic change Plate tectonics Continent­continent collisions  Edges of plate deforms  Major mountains­Alps, Himayalas, etc—are metamorphic Subduction zones Distinct linear belts of metamorphic rocks High pressure, low temperature zones nearest the trench High temperature, low pressure zones further island


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