Lecture 5 - Attitudes & Persuasion Part 2
Lecture 5 - Attitudes & Persuasion Part 2 PSYC 2012
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leslie Ogu on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2012 at George Washington University taught by Stock, M in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/04/16
Leslie Ogu PSYC 2012 02/01/2016 ttitudes & Persuasion Pt. 2 Commitment & Consistency ➢ I do as I say I do (or as I’ve done) ○ Our internal desire, or want to follow what we say we say we have already done; be consistent with the image we have already portrayed ■ Ex: A beach towel study conducted to see if more people stopped a “thief” from taking a woman’s radio as she went to buy food. More people attempted to stop the “thief” if they were asked to watch the woman’s things ahead of time ➢ Techniques ○ “Footinthedoor” (opposite of “Doorintheface”) entails starting with a smaller request and continuously increasing it to larger ones ■ According to studies, people are more likely to do more if they are eased into it, rather than asking for more upfront ○ “Lowball technique ” is the method of offering a “low price” and then increasing it once the person has committed to it ■ Once people have given their word, they are less likely to back out of it despite raising the stakes Other Influences ➢ Social Proof people seeing a behavior as appropriate in a given situation to the degree of which they see other people doing it ○ Ex: having money placed in the tip jar during business hours will make more people likely to tip as well as they believe other people have ➢ Liking people are more likely to comply to someone if they like them ○ Technique Example: “Friend Trap” ■ attempting to make people believe they are more involved with you than they may have believed or thought ➢ Scarcity Techniques plays on the idea that people will want something they believe they may not be able to get at some later time or have to get at that time ○ Psychological Reactance: We want what we cannot have or may not be able to have in the future ■ Ex: “While supplies last” sales ○ Things are more valuable if they are rare or hard to get Elaboration Likelihood Model ➢ Persuasion induces attitude change through: ○ Central Route Processing the person is fully absorbed in what the person has to say ■ the argument has quality or reasonable support ■ high effort to understand / more controlled processing ■ more detail and information given ■ no distractions ■ knowledgeable ■ more predictive of behavior ○ Peripheral Route Processing utilizing resources that require little effort; usually things people can understand on their own ■ e.g. heuristics = low effort ■ Ex: picture ads ■ speaker characteristics (e.g., attractive, trustworthy) ■ number of arguments ■ not as longlasting ■ low motivation ■ little prior knowledge ○ An optimum approach is a mixture of the two processes ○ Things to consider when deciding a method: ■ The audience ● Are they involved? ○ If they are involved, they will be more engaged in the content and try to understand it ● Is the topic relevant to them? ○ The more relevant it is to them, the more likely it is best to use the central route ■ Their motivation is higher ● Do they have to do some mental work to understand? ● Are they distracted? ● People differ in their need for cognition ○ Those who are high in NFC tend to enjoy thinking and analyzing (more towards central route) ○ Those who are low in NFC tend to not enjoy thinking and analyzing (more towards peripheral route) ■ The source ● Is it credible? ○ 2 Components ■ Expertise ● Credentials, knowledge of subject matter, beginning with a message the audience agrees with ■ Trustworthiness ● Confidence usually means more trust, selfinterest of speaker usually means less trust ● Are they attractive to the audience? (either physically or through similarities they share) ○ 2 Components Similarity and Physical Appeal ■ If we listen to someone similar to us and that is physically appealing, we are more likely to listen to them ■ Ex: Commercials usually have physically attractive celebrities to endorse their products ● Sleeper Effect a delayed message in the persuasive impact of a noncredible source ○ Sometimes we will remember the message but forget why we agreed with it ■ The message ● Based on reason or emotion ○ Arousing negative and positive feelings can lead to attitude change ■ Positive emotions lead to a more positive outlook as it makes people feel good, and this increases the chances of someone following the peripheral route to persuasion ● Different sides ○ You have to decide if when trying to persuade someone, is it better to address the opposing viewpoints ○ Onesided is better if the audience: ■ already agrees with you ■ are unaware of the opposing views ■ have less knowledge of the topic ○ Discrepancy How extreme a position should you take to maximize attitude change? ■ Moderate discrepancy is best a position will lead to people quickly rejecting and refuting the arguments
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