Anthropology: Human Variation
Anthropology: Human Variation ANTH 1213 - 001
Arkansas Tech University
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Drayton Anderson on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1213 - 001 at Arkansas Tech University taught by Rebecca L. Wiewel in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see INTRO TO ANTHROPOLOGY in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Arkansas Tech University.
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Date Created: 02/04/16
Anthropology: Human Variation Is race biologically meaningful? If so then we should see more variation. Race is no longer used in biology There is just one race, the human race. Why don’t other races exist? Human have not been apart from each other long enough for changes to occur. Gene flow has always been present. No gene flow = mutation. Race is a social reality There are differences in network in race in a social setting Long term segregation Human variation and adaption, local selection, pressures Kinds of variation Population level 1. Adaption- local populations adapt through natural selection to their environment. 2. Non- adaptive- characteristics through drift migration, mutation, etc. Individual Cline- geographic difference Skin Color Due to solar radiation Lack of pigment leads to: Skin cancer Folate degradation- When there isn't enough, it can result in an insufficient number of healthy red blood cells (vitamin deficiency anemia). Strong pressures for dark skin where there is a lot of sun. Type of variation: Lactase persistence People who raise their own livestock have a high lactase resistance. Adaptions and Climate Bergmann’s Rule- body size is bigger in cold surface area to volume Allen’s Rule- in the warm an animal will have longer legs In the cold an animal will have shorter legs Helps them to better adapt Responses to heat Evaporative cooling- sweating Acclimation- increased sweating Acclimatization- is the process in which an individual organism adjusts to a gradual change in its environment allowing it to maintain performance across a range of environmental conditions. Examples: increased heart rate and more red blood cells at higher elevation. Natives adapt better than people moving in and keep their benefits if they more. Examples: larger chest and capacity. Phenotypic plasticity- is the ability of an organism to change its phenotype in response to changes in the environment. Macroevolution A species is a group of living organisms consisting of similar individuals capable of exchanging genes or interbreeding. Speciation- new species evolve from prior ones. Two permanently separated species can come from this. Gene flow is eliminated Geographic isolation is a term that refers to a population of animals, plants, or other organisms that are separated from exchanging genetic material with other organisms of the same species. Graduation- changes in things over a long period of time Fossil Record- A term used by paleontologists to refer to the total number of fossils that have been discovered, as well as to the information derived from them. Can be used to show evolution Punctuated equilibrium- the hypothesis that evolutionary development is marked by isolated episodes of rapid speciation between long periods of little or no change. Regulatory Genes- a gene involved in controlling the expression of one or more other genes. Adaptive Radiation- the diversification of a group of organisms into forms filling different ecological niches.
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