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Developmental Psych. week 3 notes

by: Hannah Kirby

Developmental Psych. week 3 notes PSY 2603

Marketplace > University of Oklahoma > Psychlogy > PSY 2603 > Developmental Psych week 3 notes
Hannah Kirby
GPA 3.1

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About this Document

These notes cover teratogens and the prenatal stage of devlopment
Developmental Psychology
Lara Mayeux
Class Notes
Lifespan development teratogens
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Kirby on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2603 at University of Oklahoma taught by Lara Mayeux in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Oklahoma.


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Date Created: 02/04/16
Week 3 lifespan development Teratogens: any environmental agent that can cause problems with the developing child ­can severely interfere with phenotype and development ­different teratogens have different critical periods (heavy drinking will effect more in embryonic  stage than third trimester) ­both maternal and fetal genotypes can be protective against a teratogen ­effects of one teratogens can intensify the effects of another (1 bad, 2 is worse) ­may harm fetus without any noticeable effects on the mother ­some produce a particular developmental problem, some produce  multiple problems ­longer exposure will bring out worse effects (1)Maternal factors  Age­ under 18 and over 35 will bring out higher risks   Diet­ malnourished mother can harm fetus physically/cognitively; fetus needs certain  vitamins (folic acid)  Emotional state­ prolonged stress and anxiety will cause oxygen and nutrient deprivation  in fetus; leads to low birth weight and premature birth (2)Paternal factors  Age­ older men can cause higher risk of autism and other developmental disabilities  Personal habits­ smoking and hard drug use around mother can result in nicotine  exposure; associated with increased risk of birth defects  Nutrition­ vitamin C deficiency is linked to higher risk of birth defects and cancer (3)Diseases and Disorders  Rh factor incompatibility; mother and fetus being Rh­ and Rh+ can cause problems;  blood supplies don’t mingle­ are separated by membranes; HOWEVER, if during  delivery, blood interacts, then mothers body will develop antibodies for babies blood.  Problem occurs in second pregnancy, when those antibodies are present and can attack  said fetus’s blood supply causes anemia, miscarriage, brain damage, etc.     Bacterial infections o Gonorrhea­ ectopic pregnancy, fetal blindness o Syphilis­ can be treated until about 14 weeks into pregnancy; otherwise, will  cause cognitive/neurological impairment  o Chlamydia­ contracted during delivery, can cause pneumonia     Viral infections o Genital herpes­ contracted during labor/delivery; can be fatal, can lead to motor  abnormalities; about 1/3 will die, other 2/3 will have significant problems. To  avoid this, baby can be delivered through caesarian section. o HIV­ transmitted through 1) crossing placental membranes, 2) during  labor/delivery in transmission of bodily fluid, 3) via breastfeeding. If contracted,  will develop opportunistic infections, pneumonia, and other diseases. Some  treatment available. Rates of transmission can be reduced by mother having  antiretroviral­therapy. Also, C­section can be performed “bloodless” by  cauterization after incisions (HIGHLY rare) (4)Legal and Illegal substances     Nicotine o SIDS­ sudden infant death syndrome; by no avoidable means, infant goes to  sleep and stops breathing o Low birth weight     Alcohol o Fetal alcohol syndrome­ severe brain damage  o Cognitive, neurological, physical problems     Hard drugs o Primary issue is drug withdrawal after being born; babies have no coping  mechanisms to go through withdrawal­ experiencing pain, can’t soothe to  eat, become hungry, more agitated; can have cognitive disadvantages, born  premature and with low birth weight ­enormous capability to repair during last trimester; if mother can stop using substances  early enough, then the infant has a better likelihood of having fewer problems once born Medical interventions­  DES (diethylstilbestrol)­ 1945­1970 prescribed to women having a hard time  conceiving and carrying baby to term; girls born would have vaginal abnormalities,  higher rate of cervical cancer in adolescents; boys exposed had a higher rate of  testicular cancer as teens/adults and experienced fertility problems  Thalidomide­ 1960’s , treated morning sickness; most babies were okay, but some  had significant abnormalities­ cleft palate, deformed facial features, heart problems,  digestive organ problems, limb development (acutane has similar risks involved)  completely determined by which days drug was taken (if taken during limb  development in womb, or heart dev in womb, etc)


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