Developmental Psych. week 3 notes
Developmental Psych. week 3 notes PSY 2603
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Kirby on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2603 at University of Oklahoma taught by Lara Mayeux in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 02/04/16
Week 3 lifespan development Teratogens: any environmental agent that can cause problems with the developing child can severely interfere with phenotype and development different teratogens have different critical periods (heavy drinking will effect more in embryonic stage than third trimester) both maternal and fetal genotypes can be protective against a teratogen effects of one teratogens can intensify the effects of another (1 bad, 2 is worse) may harm fetus without any noticeable effects on the mother some produce a particular developmental problem, some produce multiple problems longer exposure will bring out worse effects (1)Maternal factors Age under 18 and over 35 will bring out higher risks Diet malnourished mother can harm fetus physically/cognitively; fetus needs certain vitamins (folic acid) Emotional state prolonged stress and anxiety will cause oxygen and nutrient deprivation in fetus; leads to low birth weight and premature birth (2)Paternal factors Age older men can cause higher risk of autism and other developmental disabilities Personal habits smoking and hard drug use around mother can result in nicotine exposure; associated with increased risk of birth defects Nutrition vitamin C deficiency is linked to higher risk of birth defects and cancer (3)Diseases and Disorders Rh factor incompatibility; mother and fetus being Rh and Rh+ can cause problems; blood supplies don’t mingle are separated by membranes; HOWEVER, if during delivery, blood interacts, then mothers body will develop antibodies for babies blood. Problem occurs in second pregnancy, when those antibodies are present and can attack said fetus’s blood supply causes anemia, miscarriage, brain damage, etc. Bacterial infections o Gonorrhea ectopic pregnancy, fetal blindness o Syphilis can be treated until about 14 weeks into pregnancy; otherwise, will cause cognitive/neurological impairment o Chlamydia contracted during delivery, can cause pneumonia Viral infections o Genital herpes contracted during labor/delivery; can be fatal, can lead to motor abnormalities; about 1/3 will die, other 2/3 will have significant problems. To avoid this, baby can be delivered through caesarian section. o HIV transmitted through 1) crossing placental membranes, 2) during labor/delivery in transmission of bodily fluid, 3) via breastfeeding. If contracted, will develop opportunistic infections, pneumonia, and other diseases. Some treatment available. Rates of transmission can be reduced by mother having antiretroviraltherapy. Also, Csection can be performed “bloodless” by cauterization after incisions (HIGHLY rare) (4)Legal and Illegal substances Nicotine o SIDS sudden infant death syndrome; by no avoidable means, infant goes to sleep and stops breathing o Low birth weight Alcohol o Fetal alcohol syndrome severe brain damage o Cognitive, neurological, physical problems Hard drugs o Primary issue is drug withdrawal after being born; babies have no coping mechanisms to go through withdrawal experiencing pain, can’t soothe to eat, become hungry, more agitated; can have cognitive disadvantages, born premature and with low birth weight enormous capability to repair during last trimester; if mother can stop using substances early enough, then the infant has a better likelihood of having fewer problems once born Medical interventions DES (diethylstilbestrol) 19451970 prescribed to women having a hard time conceiving and carrying baby to term; girls born would have vaginal abnormalities, higher rate of cervical cancer in adolescents; boys exposed had a higher rate of testicular cancer as teens/adults and experienced fertility problems Thalidomide 1960’s , treated morning sickness; most babies were okay, but some had significant abnormalities cleft palate, deformed facial features, heart problems, digestive organ problems, limb development (acutane has similar risks involved) completely determined by which days drug was taken (if taken during limb development in womb, or heart dev in womb, etc)
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