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BIOL 122 Chapter 17: The Endocrine System Part 1

by: Bridget Notetaker

BIOL 122 Chapter 17: The Endocrine System Part 1 BIOL 122

Marketplace > University of Southern Indiana > Biology > BIOL 122 > BIOL 122 Chapter 17 The Endocrine System Part 1
Bridget Notetaker

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About this Document

This set of notes goes over the difference between endocrine versus exocrine, transport of water and lipid soluble hormones, locations of receptors, and patterns of secretion
Human Anatomy & Physiology II
Dr. Pilcher
Class Notes
anatomy, Physiology, Biology, Endocrine, system
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bridget Notetaker on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 122 at University of Southern Indiana taught by Dr. Pilcher in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology II in Biology at University of Southern Indiana.


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Date Created: 02/04/16
Chapter  17:  The  Endocrine  System  (Part  One) Thursday,   January   21,  2016 4:15   PM One  of  two  control   systems   in  body   that  are  charged   with  homeostasis   (second   is   nervous   system) Both  endocrine   and  exocrine  glands  are  secretory Differences:   Presence/Absence   of  ducts Secretion   onto  tissue   surface   vs.  into  the  ECF/blood Exocrine  glands  (sweat  and  sebaceous   gland -­‐s)presence   of  ducts   The  liver  is  a  type  of  exocrine  gland Contains   bile Endocrine   glands:  lack  ducts,   release  hormones   into  ECF,  then  make  their  way  into  the   blood,   then  circulates   in  blood   so  it  can  have  its  effect Mechanism   of  control   for  nervous   system   are  neurotransmitters   released   at  synapses Endocrine   system   uses  hormones Nervous   system   responds   quickly Hormones   have  to  be  released  through  endocrine   glands,   circulate  through  the  blood   and  find  target  cells  before  they  can  have  an  effect;  response   takes  longer Nervous   system   has  effects   of  short   duration Endocrine   system   effects  last  longer Hormones   continue   to  have  their  effect  until  the  hormone   molecules   are   removed   from  the  blood   stream  by  the  liver  or  kidney   and  sometimes   by  the   lungs Hormones   are  chemical  substances   secreted  into  the  blood  that  regulate  the   metabolic   function   of  other  cells  in  the  body   Target  cells  =  those  cells  with  receptors   for  hormones ADH  targets  the  kidney   ADH  changes   the  composition   of  urine Hormones   are  chemical  substances   secreted  into  the  blood  that  regulate  the   metabolic   function   of  other  cells  in  the  body   Target  cells  =  those  cells  with  receptors   for  hormones ADH  targets  the  kidney   ADH  changes   the  composition   of  urine Water-­‐soluble   hormone -­‐sproteins,   peptides,   most  am -acoid   derivatives   Lipid-­‐soluble   hormone -­‐ssteroid   hormones,   thyroid   hormones   (an  a-­‐acido   derivative) The  two  chemical  classes  of  hormones   influences   how  the  hormone   is  circulated   in   the  blood,   how  long  it  lasts  in  blood  before  its  broken  down  or  removed,   the  site  of   the  location   of  receptors  on  the  target  cell Lipids   don’t   mix  with  water,  making  them  hydrophobic Carbs   and  proteins   are  w-telruble   and  do  mix  with  water,  making  them  hydrophilic   Two  layers  of  phospholipids   form  the  cell  membrane   (bilayer),   protein  groups   scattered  throughout,   carbohydrate   groups   are  primarily   on  the  outer  surface Transport  of  lip-­‐soluble   hormones Steroid   hormones,   thyroid   hormones   etc Small,   hydrophobic   molecules Need  binding   proteins   for  transport   through   blood Longer  half-­‐life   due  to  "protection"   by  binding  proteins Most  hormones   are  bound   to  binding   proteins   but  some   are  unbound   or  free   hormones Free  hormone   molecules   will  interact  with  target  cells Removal  of  free  hormones   from  blood: Broken  down  by  hydrolytic   enzymes   in  blood Hydrolytic -­‐ breaking   down   of  molecule   by  water Bound  to  water-­‐soluble   conjugation   molecules Products   excreted  in  urine  or  bile Transport  of  water-­‐soluble   hormones Proteins,   peptides,   most  am-­incoid   derivatives   Hydrophilic   Small  molecules   dissolve   in  blood   stream Larger  molecules   may  require  binding   protein   In  general,  short  -­felif Most  broken   down   by: Proteins,   peptides,   most  am-­incoid   derivatives   Hydrophilic   Small  molecules   dissolve   in  blood   stream Larger  molecules   may  require  binding   protein   In  general,  short  -­felif Most  broken   down   by: Hydrolysis   (proteases)   in  blood Target  cell  (using  lysozymes   after  endocytosis) Others   have  longer  h-lile   due  to: Stabilization   by  sugar  grou-­-­s    glycoproteins Modification   at  terminal  ends   (target  of  proteases) Binding  to  binding   proteins Location  of  receptors For  water  soluble   hormones,   the  location   of  the  receptor   is  on  the  surface   of   the  target  cell Membrane -­‐bound   receptor  with  binding   site  specific   for  that  hormone For  lipid   soluble   hormones,   the  location   of  the  receptor   is  well  within   the  target   cell Nuclear  receptor Patterns   of  hormone   secretion Chronic   secretion   (long  term) Chronic   hormone   secret-­‐ioa n  relatively  stable  concentration   of  hormone   is  maintained   in  the  circulating  blood   over  a  relatively   long  period.   This   pattern  is  exemplified   by  the  thyroid   hormones Acute  secretion   (short  term,  sudden   onset) Acute  hormone   secretio -­‐na  hormone   rapidly  increases   in  the  blood  for  a   short  time  in  response   to  a  specific -­flur  example,   insulin   (the   blood   suga-­regulating   hormone)   secretion   following   a  meal.  Note  that   the  size  of  the  stimulus   arrow  represents   its  strength.   A  smaller  stimulus   does   not  activate  as  much   hormone   secretion   as  a  larger  stimulus Episodic   secretion   (secreted  in  episodes) Episodic   hormone   secretion -­‐ a  hormone   is  stimulated   so  that  it  increases   and  decreases  in  the  blood   at    a  relatively   consistent   time  and  to  roughly   the  same  amount.   Examples   are  the  reproductive   hormones   regulating   menstruation  


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