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BIOL 122 Chapter 17: The Endocrine System Part 2

by: Bridget Notetaker

BIOL 122 Chapter 17: The Endocrine System Part 2 BIOL 122

Marketplace > University of Southern Indiana > Biology > BIOL 122 > BIOL 122 Chapter 17 The Endocrine System Part 2
Bridget Notetaker

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This is a continuation of part one. It describes the different types of stimuli (humoral, neural, and hormonal). It also describes positive and negative feedback, the effect of hormone binding, lo...
Human Anatomy & Physiology II
Dr. Pilcher
Class Notes
anatomy, Physiology, Biology, Endocrine, system
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bridget Notetaker on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 122 at University of Southern Indiana taught by Dr. Pilcher in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology II in Biology at University of Southern Indiana.


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Date Created: 02/04/16
Chapter  17:  The  Endocrine  System  (Part  Two) Wednesday,   January   27,  2016 10:34   AM Control   by  humoral   stimuli In  response   to  changing   blood   level  of  certain  compounds   (ions   and  nutrients)   Examples: PTH:  response   to  altered  blood   calcium Insulin:   in  response   to  altered  blood   glucose Neural  stimuli In  response   to  signals   from   nervous   system Can  be  stimulatory   or  inhibitory -­‐An  action  potential   (AP)  in  a  neuron   innervating   an  endocrine   cell   stimulates   secretion   of  a  stimulatory   neurotransmitter -­‐The  endocrine   cell  secretes  its  hormone   into  the  blood  where  it  will   travel  to  its  target -­‐The  AP  in  the  neuron  stimulates   secretion   of  an  inhibitory   neurotransmitter -­‐The  endocrine   cell  is  inhibited   and  does  not  secrete  its  hormone   SNS  to   adrenal  medulla  -­‐-­‐>  release  of  catecholamines Epinephrine   Norepinephrine Neuropeptides   Peptide   molecules   released   from  nerve   cells   Acts  as  neurotransmitters From   pituitary:   oxytocin   and  ADH  released Hormonal   stimuli One  hormone   regulates   the  secretion   of  another Tropic  hormones Example:  hypothalamic   hormones   regulate  release  of  anterior  pituitary   hormones -­‐Neurons   in  the  hypothalamus   release   stimulatory   hormones   called  releasing   hormones.   Releasing   hormones   travel  in  the  blood   to  the  anterior  pituitary   gland -­‐releasing   hormones   stimulate  the  release  of  tropic  hormones   from  the  anterior   pituitary,   which  travel  in  the  blood   to  their  target  endocrine   cell -­‐The  target  endocrine   cell  secretes  its  hormone   into  the  blood,   where  it  travels   to  its  target  and  produces   a  response gland -­‐releasing   hormones   stimulate  the  release  of  tropic  hormones   from  the  anterior   pituitary,   which  travel  in  the  blood   to  their  target  endocrine   cell -­‐The  target  endocrine   cell  secretes  its  hormone   into  the  blood,   where  it  travels   to  its  target  and  produces   a  response              RH                                                                            TSH                                                          Thyroid   hormone Hypothalamus    -  -­‐>          Anteri    -­‐  >       --­‐  >                       Target  cells Negative  feedback When  the  end  product   of  a  pathway  has  a  negative  impact  on  the  functioning   of   earlier  parts  of  the  pathway As  thyroid   levels   increase   in  the  blood,   they  work  to  inhibit   the   hypothalamus   and  anterior  pituitary Slows   down   the  releasing   of  thyrotropin   releasing   hormone   and  release   of   thyroid  stimulating   hormone Positive   feedback -­‐The  anterior  pituitary  secretes  a  tropic  hormone,   which  travels  in  the  blood   to   the  target  endocrine   cell -­‐The  hormone   from  the  target  endocrine   cell  travels  to  its  target -­‐The  hormone   from  the  target  endocrine   cell  also  has  -feedback   effect   on  the  anterior  pituitary   and  increases   secretion   of  the  tropic  hormone Effect  of  hormone   binding   Altered  cell  activity -­‐Alteration   of  membrane   permeability   or  membrane   potential   (via   opening/closing   channels) -­‐Synthesis   of  proteins   or  enzymes -­‐Activation/deactivation   of  enzymes -­‐Induction   of  secretion -­‐Stimulation   of  mitosis Hormone   receptors Proteins   with  receptor   site  (active  site) Affinity How  tightly  the  hormone   binds   to  the  receptor High  affinity=larger   effect/longer   lasting  in  target  cell Low  affinity=won't   attach  well  or  long Specificity   Each  hormone   receptor  will  only   bind   to  a  specific   hormone Location  of  receptors High  affinity=larger   effect/longer   lasting  in  target  cell Low  affinity=won't   attach  well  or  long Specificity   Each  hormone   receptor  will  only  bind  to  a  specific   hormone Location  of  receptors Lipid-­‐soluble   hormones Can  cross   membrane Receptors  within  nucleus Water-­‐soluble   hormones Cannot   cross   membrane   Receptors  on  cell  surface Mechanism   of  action  for  lisidluble   hormones Lipid-­‐soluble   hormones   diffuse   through   the  plasma   membrane   They  bind  to  cytoplasmic   receptors  and  travel  to  the  nucleus   or  bind  to  nuclear   receptors The  hormone -­‐receptor   complex  binds   to  a  hormone   response   element  on  the   DNA,  acting  as  a  transcription   factor The  binding   of  the  hormo-­‐receptor   complex   to  DNA  stimulates   the  synthesis   of  the  messenger   RNA  (mRNA) The  mRNA  leaves  the  nucleus,   passes   into  the  cytoplasm   of  the  cell,  and  binds   to  ribosomes The  newly  synthesized   proteins   produce   the  cells  response   to  tpsidluble   hormones…   for  example,   the  secretion   of  a  new  protein Mechanism   of  action  for  wa-­‐torluble   hormones Cannot   cross   lipid   bilayer Must  bind   to  receptor   at  surface   Triggers  a  second   messenger   response -­‐Before  the  hormone   binds   to  its  receptor,  the  G  protein  consists   of  three   subunits,   with  GDP  attached  to  the  alpha  subunit   and  freely  floats   in  the  plasma   membrane GDP=guanine   diphosphate -­‐The  hormone   binds   to  its  membebound   receptor,  the  receptor  changes   shape,   the  G  protein   binds   to  it,  a  GTP  replaces   GDP  on  the  alpha  subunit   of  the   G  protein -­‐The  G  protein   separates  from  the  receptor.   T-­inked   alpha  unit   separates.   It  activates  cellular   responses,   which   vary  among  target  cells -­‐When  the  hormone   separates  from  the  receptor,  additional   G  proteins   are  no   longer  activated.  Inactivation   of  the  alpha  subunit   occurs  when  phosphate   is   removed   from  the  GTP,  leaving  GDP  bound   to  the  alpha  subunit Second   messenger   response Second   messengers   include   cyclic  AMP,   calcium,   cyclic  GMP, -­‐When  the  hormone   separates  from  the  receptor,  additional   G  proteins   are  no   longer  activated.  Inactivation   of  the  alpha  subunit   occurs  when  phosphate   is   removed   from  the  GTP,  leaving  GDP  bound   to  the  alpha  subunit Second   messenger   response Second   messengers   include   cyclic  AMP,   calcium,   cyclic  GMP, Activated   via  G  protein Amplification   of  effect Production   of  second   messenger   cAMP Uses  G  protein Opening   of  calcium   channels,   with  attraction   of  calmodulin/Ca+2 Uses  G  protein Direct  activation  of  cGMP  (or  other  second   messengers) No  G  protein Phosphorylation   of  proteins No  G  protein Amplification   cAMP  -­‐-­‐-­‐>  Activated   protein  -  -­‐>  Cellular   response


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