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Developmental Psych Week 5 Notes

by: Bobbi Ellias

Developmental Psych Week 5 Notes PSY 256-70

Bobbi Ellias


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About this Document

Notes from week 5
Developmental Psychology 256
Dr. Linda Lee
Class Notes
developmental psych, week 5, Peer Interaction
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bobbi Ellias on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 256-70 at California Polytechnic State University-San Luis Obispo taught by Dr. Linda Lee in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology 256 in Psychlogy at California Polytechnic State University-San Luis Obispo.


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Date Created: 02/04/16
I Gender Role Stereotypes: Gender-Role Stereotypes: People’s beliefs about the differences between males and females Gender Differences: actual (“research says”) differences between males and females Children acquire gender stereotypes/sex-type behavior 14 months: prefer sex-typed toys 2-5 years: understand social stereotypes 4 years: understand occupational stereotypes 5 years: learned personality stereotypes *Adolescence: Gender intensifications (all these prior ideas solidify) Bigler’s (1995) Study on Gender Stereotyping: 1. Use Gender classrooms to study development of gender bias 2. during summertime, kids are separated into gender or non gender classrooms a. gender classroom- separation on boys/girls and use boy/girl language b. non gender classrooms- no use of “boy”/“girl” language to categorize 3. test to see if this relates to gender stereotyping 4. results: kids in non gender classroom don’t stereotype men/women jobs II A Child’s Social World: Parents/Caregivers Definition: Process by which individuals learn beavers society and culture think are appropriate (Ex: girls, cross your legs when wearing a skirt) 1. Social Referencing: use of other’s emotional response as a guide to his/her own emotions a. child meets new person, doesn’t know what to do, so looks at parents and reciprocates action b. so if mom is scared, child doesn’t approach object c. importance: keeps you alive, teaches you about world around you d. today example: if roommate just broke up with boyfriend and is crying, don’t immediately ask her to drive you to Target 2. Parenting Styles: a. two dimensions to description 1. Demandingness (control): the degree at which parents set rules and expectations and require children to comply 2. Responsiveness (warmth): degree at which parents are sensitive to children’s needs and extent to which they express warmth and concern b. Interaction between responsiveness: 1. Most common in US: indifferent 2. Authoritative: most common in white middle-class (positive outcomes in these families) 3. Authoritarian: common in minority families, associated with negative outcomes in white middle class but in lower class, could be good 3. Child Maltreatment: (includes both neglect and abuse) all intentional harm/avoidable endangerment of someone under 18 a. abuse: all actions deliberately harmful to wellbeing 1. can be physical, emotional, or sexual b. neglect: failures to act appropriately to fit child’s needs 1. physical, emotional, educational 2. toxic stress: bad environments without nurture lead to less neural connections, overload of stress, and long term effects on child 4.Characteristics of Parents who abuse or neglect: a. average is not psychotic b. have been abused themselves (about 30%; aka “intergenerational transmission of violence”) c. live in stressful environment d. have unrealistic expectations of child’s behavior 5. Why does abuse “linger” or continue? a. attachment- close emotional bond between infant and caregiver that endures across time 1. secure attachment: child derives comfort/confidence from caregiver 2. Insecure attachment: infants exhibit fear/indifference to caregiver 3. disorganized (about 15% of abused kids have this)- infants act oddly- may freeze, scream, hit self, how things b. Bobi’s explanation for attachment: Internal Working Model 1. inner representations of attached figures, the self and the environment (lens you see the world through) 2. Ex: A disorganized attachment child sees world as if other’s wont love them, world is helpless place 6. Socialization: Peers/Friends Relationship Why study peer relationships: They do spend time with peers and unique learning experiences come from these relationships (ex: mom won’t argue/negotiate to play with Elsa doll, but another child will). a. Peer: people who are same age b. Friends: people with whom you develop a valid, mutual relationship with c. Types of Peer Relationships: 1. friendships: stable, dynamic relationships marked by reciprocity/intimacy 2. peer acceptance: how much one is liked by peers (popularity doesn’t mean you have a lot of friendships) 3. bullying: involved repeated and systematic efforts to inflict hard 7. Developments of friendships Early Childhood (2-6 years): less reciprocal support and less aired intimacy; defined as “someone I like to play with” Middle Childhood (6-11 years): mutual understanding and shared outlook Adolescence (11+): mutual self disclosure and understanding; desire for trust, loyalty, commitment A. Peer group social status (peer acceptance) measured by 1. Sociometry: who do you like to play with? Who do you like as a person? 2. answer= popular vs rejected B. Behavioral styles: 1. Popular: prosocial- cooperate, friendship, helpful, kind 2. Rejected: aggressive, disruptive, withdrawn, submissive *socioemotional competence: social/emotional competence. ability to behave appropriately in social situations that evoke strong emotions C. Delaying Gratification: socioemotional competence 1. Ex: Marshmallow Study Result: ate right away- problems in high school- obesity, addiction) while those who waited scored 210 points higher on SAT 8. Components of Social Competence: A. Emotional Understanding: increased ability to regulate emotions in early childhood; increased tendency to consider emotional consequences in middle childhood B. Perspective Taking: less egocentric by middle childhood; increase in prosocial behavior during middle childhood (ex: empathy, altruism) C. Social Cognition: Person’s awareness and understanding of human personality, motives, emotions, intention, interaction with others


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