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Date Created: 02/04/16
NURS 201 Learning objectives • 2-6 yo: child changes from being a dependent toddler, able to communicate only in very primitive ways, to being a remarkably competent, communicative social being, ready to begin school. • Discuss growth and motor development • Discuss health and wellness • Understand brain development • Analyze language and cognitive development Growth and Motor Development • 3 major changes for 2-6 yo: • loss of the baby look in size, proportion & shape o Girls - bit shorter and less heavy than boys o Girls’ bodies have more fatty tissue o Boys’ bodies have more muscle tissue • refine gross & fine motor skills • rapid brain development leads to sophisticated & complex learning • Changes in height and weight happen slowly: 2–3” & 6 Lbs per year • Gross motor skills: dramatic change in running, hopping, throwing o Fine motor skills develop more slowly • Conditions for motor learning: readiness, practice, attention span, competence, motivation & feedback PHYSICAL CHANGES • Fine motor skills • Early training begin at age 2 ½ can accelerate the rate at which children learn school-related fine- motor skills • Older children benefit more from training than younger children do. • Learning to write letters aids in letter understanding. • STAGES IN CHILDREN’S DRAWING • Brain Development • Brain growth, synapse formation, and myelinization continue in early childhood • By age 5 the brain is almost adult sized • Myelinization starts in infancy for motor reflexes & vision: Now for complex motor activities: hand-eye, attention span, memory, self control Increased complex learning, problem solving, language use Myelinization • Myelinization: production of the myelin sheath around axon—improve conductivity • Synapse formation: formation of synapses between neurons in the nervous system. Axons find their appropriate targets from an array of choices - allow efficient information transfer. • Reticular formation: regulates attention and concentration • Hippocampus: transfer of information to long-term memory Lateralization • The process through which brain functions are divided between the two hemispheres of the cerebral cortex • Genes provide the mechanism for lateralization • Experience shapes the pace. • Lateralization accompanies the growth of corpus callosum. • Corpus callosum: thick band of nerve fibers that connects the right and left hemispheres of the cerebral cortex - transfers motor, sensory, and cognitive information b/w brain hemisphere Handedness • Tendency to rely primarily on the right or left hand • Neurological milestone of 2-6 yo period • Right or Left…Not right or wrong! o 83% right-handed o 14% left-handed o 3% ambidextrous • Research suggests genetic link Health and Wellness: Eating patterns • Preschoolers: o Often eat less than when babies o May not consume the majority of daily calories at mealtime o Acquire eating habits that lead to later weight problems o 16% 2-5 yo overweight, another 16% at risk of becoming so at school age • Challenges: o Food aversions: a psychological repulsion to some foods caused by emotions associated with the food rather than by any chemical properties within the food o Eating behaviors bring on family conflicts o Suggestion: Avoid power struggles Health and Illness: Sleep • Pediatrician’s recommendations for effective bedtime practices that can help children—and their often-sleepy parents—sleep better at night. o Structured, predictable daytime schedule o Regular bedtime that is 8 to 10 hours before waking o Discontinue daytime naps o Establish a routine of settling activities o Provide a transitional object Health and Illness: Illness • Each year, four to six bouts of brief sickness are typical, most often colds or flu • High levels of family stress are more likely to produce sick children • Children living in single parents home-asthma, headache Factors Related to Childhood Accidents • 25% of U.S. children under 5 have 1 accident in any one year requiring medical attention o most occur in home o major cause of death in preschoolers o more common among boys o Drowning is most common for 1-4yo o MVA is most common ≥5yo • Societal conditions o births to teenagers not ready for parenthood o shortage of quality child care COGNITIVE CHANGES Piaget’s Preoperational Stage: Overview • Preoperational Stage: Increased proficiency of symbol use in thinking and communicating but have difficulty in thinking logically • Piaget’s “Pre” operational stage (2-6 yo) o Language development is one of the hallmarks o Increasingly adopt using symbols, role playing o Do not yet understand concrete logic, cannot mentally manipulate information, and are unable to take the point of view of other people. o Implies children in this stage are unable to perform tasks or “operations” older children can, including: o Egocentrism o Lack of conservation • Egocentrism: the child’s tendency to view things from his or her own perspective o Guided by object appearance o May create frustration in communication o Piaget’s Three Mountain Task: Egocentrism Lack of Conservation • Conservation: understanding that change in appearance can occur without change in quantity • Unsuccessful conservation involves centration and irreversibility (usually 4 – 5 years) • Centration: focus on one aspect and neglect others • Irreversibility: cannot mentally reverse a set of steps Piaget - Stage 2 - Preoperational - Lack of Conservation (2:16) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GLj0IZFLKvg&feature=related PIAGET’S CONSERVATION TASKS • ALTERNATIVE THEORIES OF EARLY CHILDHOOD THINKING Neo-Piagetian Theories: Robbie Case • 7 yo is better able to handle the processing demands of conservation tasks than is a 4 yo because of improvements in operational efficiency. • Short-term storage space (STSS): child’s limited working memory capacity for handling information • Operational efficiency • Maximum number of schemes that may be put forth into STSS at one time • Improves through practice and brain maturation • NEO-PIAGETIAN MATRIX CLASSIFICATION TASK o Before training- most preschoolers say that a blue triangle or pink circle belongs in the box with the question mark. o After learning a two-step strategy in which they are taught to classify each object first by shape and then by color, children understand that a red triangle is the figure that is needed to complete the matrix. CHILDREN’S PLAY AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT • Constructive play: o 2yo- use objects to build things (blocks)- understand rules that govern physical reality (tower that a broader at the top and narrow at the bottom will be unstable) • First pretend play: o 12mo- some pretending (drinking from a toy cup), 15-21mo- use a doll/person as a recipient of the pretend action (feed the doll), signals moving from sensorimotor to true symbolic thinking • Substitute pretend play: o 2-3yo-use objects to stand for something (play violin with carrot and chop stick) • Sociodramatic play: o 3-4yo- mutual pretending (doctor, nurse) • Rule-governed play: o 5-6yo: understand rules and will follow them. (house-whoever smallest has to be the baby), Indicates readiness to make transition to the concrete operations, in which they acquire an understanding of rules THEORIES OF MIND • Theory of mind: young children begin to understand other people's thoughts and feelings • False-belief principle: an understanding that enables a child to look at a situation from another people’s point of view and determine what kind of information will cause that person to have a false belief • Children with disabilities (mental retardation) develop a theory of mind more slowly. • Theories of Mind correlated with: performance on Piaget’s tasks, pretend play, shared make- believe with other children, discussion of emotion-provoking events with parents, language skills and working memory, cross-cultural influences CHANGES IN LANGUAGE • Piaget recognized that the overriding theme of cognitive development in the early childhood years is language acquisition. o 2.5 yo: 600 words o 5-6 yo: 15,000 words o 10 new words a day. • Fast-mapping: Ability to categorically link new words to real-world objects and events. o Starts around 3 yo as children begin to think of groups of objects in a single class. o Rapid formation of a hypothesis about a new word’s meaning • Grammar Explosion: o the period when grammatical features of child speech becomes more adult-like o Inflections: add –s, -ed, -ing to change meaning “My hamster runned away” o Negatives: put in not, -n’t, no but omit the auxiliary verb “I not crying” • Questions: learn to add who, what, where, why, how • Complex sentences: use conjunctions to combine two ideas or using imbedded clauses. • Strongly linked to vocabulary development. • Overregularization: o Using rules when they don’t apply. Children learn the rules quickly, and then learn the exceptions one at a time. • Phonological Awareness: o a child’s sensitivity to sound patterns that are specific to a language o Awareness of sounds being represented by letters o The greater a child’s phonological awareness, the faster s/he learns to read • Learn in school through formal instruction • Primarily develops through word play, nursery rhymes • Invented spelling – attempting to write • Remember: Word learning drives the process of language development. DIFFERENCES IN INTELLIGENCE • Measuring Intelligence • The first test: Binet and Simon (1905) o Vocabulary, comprehension, mathematical and verbal reasoning. o Identify children who might have difficulty in school • Lewis Terman: Stanford-Binet test o Intelligence Quotient (IQ) o Mental age/chronological age X 100 = IQ o 2/3 of children exhibit an IQ between 85 and 115 • Modern Intelligent test: Wechsler Intelligence Scales o Verbal scales, Performance scales, Working memory scales THE NORMAL CURVE • Intelligence Quotient (IQ) scores form a normal distribution o < 70: mental retardation, o 70-84 below average, o 85-114: average, 115-129 o above average, >130 gifted Stability and Predictive Value of IQ Scores • IQ scores are quite stable, but do not measure underlying competence. • Correlation b/w IQ & grades = .50 – .60. • High IQ r/t resiliency and the ability to develop the kind of self-confidence and personal competence to overcome obstacles. • Lower IQ r/t delinquency in adolescence, adult illiteracy, and criminal behavior. Evidence of Heredity and Family Influences • Family Influences • Adoption studies provide support for genetic and environmental influences. o Children adopted in higher-social-class homes had higher IQ scores. • Parents of higher social class provide interesting and complex learning environments. o Age-appropriate play materials o Warm and appropriate responses to behavior o Descriptively rich language environments o Quick in answering questions o Talk to children often o Avoid being excessively restrictive, punitive, or controlling o Appreciation and encouragement for school achievement Evidence for Preschool Influences • Head Start aids poor children and supports intellectual development • Provide intellectual stimulation • Help children to acquire new vocabulary • Gain about 10 IQ points while enrolled in them, but this IQ gain typically fades and then disappears within the first few years of school • Long term impact on children o Less likely to be placed in special education, less likely repeat a grade, more likely graduate from high school, better health, better immunization rates, better adjustment than their peers • When an enrichment program is begun in infancy rather than at age 3 or 4, IQ scores remain elevated into adulthood. Early Education and IQ Scores • In Ramey’s study, children from poverty-level families were randomly assigned in infancy to an experimental group that received special day care or to a control group, with the intervention lasting until age five. At kindergarten, both groups entered public school). • IQs of children enrolled in special programs higher at every level and the intervention effect remained statistically significant after 7 years (12yo) Combining the Information • Studies around the world consistently yield estimates that roughly 40% of the variation in IQ within a given population of children is due to heredity. • The remaining variation is clearly due to environment or to interactions between environment and heredity. • Reaction range: a range b/w upper and lower boundary of functioning established by one’s genetic heritage • reaction range for IQ is 20-25 points: given a specific genetic heritage, a child’s actual IQ test performance may vary by as much as 20-25 points depending on the richness or poverty of the environment in which he grows up Group Differences in Intelligence Test Scores • Chinese and Japanese children demonstrate higher performance on achievement tests • African American children consistently score lower than White children: • Difference is not found in infancy, appears 2-3 yo, and persist through adolescence and adulthood • 10-12 point differences fall within the reaction range of scores possible with different environments • May reflect poverty, low birth weight, sub-nutrition, high blood levels of lead, less likely to be read, less intellectual stimulation among African American children • Mixed-race adoptions studies support environmental influence • Flynn Effect: over last two centuries IQ scores have increased in all groups; argues for environmental effects DENVER DEVELOPMENTAL SCREENING TEST SCORING SYSTEM Scoring: • every item should be marked with one of the following: • P = pass • F = fail • N.O = no opportunity (e.g., for reported items—it would not be accurate to “fail” a child on tooth brushing when she had never been allowed to brush her teeth). • R = refusal (child refuses to do test item). Minimize these by telling the child to do the item. Say, “Feed the baby?” rather than asking do you want to feed the baby?” Enlist the care-giver as your ally. Interpreting individual items: • Advanced = passing an item completely to the right of the age line (advanced items are not used in interpreting the examination). • Normal = Failing or refusing an item completely to the right of the age line; passing, failing or refusing an item in which the age line intersects the white (<75%) portion of the item bar (normal items are not used in interpreting the examination). • Caution = failing an item in which the age line intersects the dark (75-90%) portion of the item bar. write large C • Delayed = failing or refusing an item completely to the left of the age line. Shade the RT end of the line • No Opportunity- reported items the child has not has a chance to try. Interpreting the test as a whole: • Normal = No delays, and maximum of 1 caution routine rescreening at next WCC • Suspect = 2 or more cautions and/or 1 or more delays rescreen in 1-2 weeks to rule out temporary factors such as fatigue, fear, illness If rescreen is suspect or untestable, refer directly for diagnostic evaluation • Untestable = refusal scores on one or more items completely to the left of the age line or on more than one item intersected by the age line in the 75-90% (dark) area rescreen in 1-2 weeks Chapter 8: Social and Personality Development in Early Childhood Theories of Social and Personality Development Psychoanalytic Perspectives • Erikson: agreed with Freud that bodily control and relationships with parents are important at this stage, but added focus on social skill development o Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt (1-3yo) § Centered around toddler’s new mobility and desire for autonomy o Initiative versus Guilt (3-6yo) § Ushered in by new cognitive skills § The developing conscience dictates boundaries (her conscience helps her find socially acceptable ways of getting what she wants o The parent’s role changes as the child gains more control Social-Cognitive Perspectives • Change is the result of increasing cognitive abilities • Person perception: o increasing ability to classify others o They categorize others based on observable characteristics o Race- what they see as different o Gender § self segregate by gender by age 2 o Age § “big kids” or “little kids” • Cross-race effect by age 5: o individuals more likely to remember faces of people their own race than those of a different race. • Nice or not nice • Children this age change their perceptions quickly – someone is nice one day and mean the next • Based on their most recent interaction • Understanding rule categories o Social conventions – § Customs - e.g. where the fork goes when setting the table, nothing to do with right or wrong o Moral rules § Based on society’s sense of right and wrong o By age 2-3 they start to understand the difference • This understanding of rules is based on increased cognitive capabilities and adult emphasis on moral transgressions • Understanding Others’ Intentions o Children do understand intentions to some degree: o Punishment is for intentional acts o Actors’ intentions matter. “It was an accident” o Choices bound by consequences. o A test of children’s understanding of intentionality § How to tell a good kid from a bad kid Personality and Self-Concept • Gains in understanding of social environment contribute to the emergence of a distinctive personality. • Self-concept becomes more complex. • Child is able to exercise greater control over behavior • Transition: - From Temperament to Personality • Personality - Represents combination of temperament (from birth) and knowledge the child gains about temperament-related behavior during childhood (such as that bad behavior results in peer rejection). • Social rewards encourage impulse control and behavior is modified. Emotional regulation • Def: ability to control emotional states and emotion-related behavior Components of Self-Concept • Categorical Self o Focus on visible characteristics o Are you a boy or a girl? • Emotional Self o Acquisition of emotional self-regulation § Associated with peer popularity § Lack of control associated with aggression § Ability to obey moral rules § Associated with emergence of empathy • Seeing and matching the personality • Social Self o Child sees self as player in social games o Learns many social scripts, which provide appropriate situational behaviors Developing self control • Personality begins to replace temperament as children interact with peers and family. • Control of emotions shifts from parental control to the child. • Children begin to internalize the values of the parent. • Parents who expect age-related behaviors increase the switch to self-control. • How can parents help young children learn self-control? o Model self control o Explaining o Have consistent expectations and consequences Families • Family Relationships and Structure Attachment o Securely attached preschoolers exhibit fewer behavior problems. o Insecurely attached children display more anger and aggression at daycare and preschool. • By age 4, children form goal-corrected partnerships. • Relationship continues to exist even when the partners are apart • Internal model of attachment begins to generalize • Diana Baurmrind o Warmth and nurturance o Clarity and consistency of rules o Maturity of expectations and demands o Communication between child and parent Family Relationships and Structure, Parenting Styles Authoritarian • Parenting Characteristics o High levels of demand and control o Low levels of warmth and communication • Child Consequences o Good school performance o Lower self-esteem and less peer interaction skills o Some subdued; others highly aggressive Permissive • Parenting Characteristics o High in warmth and communication o Low in demand and control • Child Consequences o Poor adolescent school performance o More aggressive and immature o Less responsible and independent Authoritative • Parenting Characteristics o High in warmth and communication o High in demand and control • Child Consequences o Higher self-esteem, independence, and altruism o More parental compliance o Self-confident and achievement-oriented o Better school performance o More consistently positive outcomes Uninvolved • Parenting Characteristics o Low in levels of demand and control o Low in levels of warmth and communication • Child Consequences o Disturbances in social relationships o More impulsive and antisocial in adolescence o Less competent with peers o Much less achievement-oriented in school o Most consistently negative outcomes Effects of Parenting Styles: Overview Authoritative Parents § More likely to be involved in child’s school § Often use inductive discipline o Strategy in which parents explain to the child why a punished behavior is wrong o Helps children in preschool to gain control of their behavior and gain perspective of other’s feelings § Not equally effective for all children o Risk takers o Bad temperament Spanking § Most parents believe spanking effective if used sparingly § Short-term effects o It works – § temporarily reduces undesirable behavior § Long-term effects o models infliction of pain; associates spanking parents with physical pain; leads to family climate of emotional rejection; higher levels of aggression between children who are spanked and those who are not Authoritative pattern § Positive outcomes seen in all ethnic groups § More common in white families and middle class § Usually more common among intact families § Least common among Asian Americans § Strong connections between authoritarian pattern and school performance and social competence appear for Asian Americans and African Americans. Ethnicity, Socio-Economic Status and Parenting Styles § Authoritarian pattern in Asian American families o High levels of school achievement in Asian American children o Economic success o Maintenance of ethnic identity o Authoritarian pattern in African American families § Enhances children’s potential for self-control and success § Prepares children to deal with social forces such as racism that impede social success § Reduces use of substance abuse § More common among poor families Family Relationships and Structure o Two-Parent and Single-Parent Families o Only 70% of U.S. children lived with two parents in 2010. o 60% with bio or adoptive parents who are married o Many children from two-parent families have experienced single-parenting. o 2% of U.S. children live with custodial grandparents. o Single Parents o More common among African Americans and Native Americans o Single mothers are less likely to marry. o Grandparents and other relatives traditionally help support single mothers. o Custodial Grandparents o Aging and parenting stress can cause anxiety and depression. o Gay and Lesbian Parents o No expressed social or cognitive developmental differences between the children of gay and lesbian parents and the children of heterosexual couples. o Concerns about children’s sex-role identity and orientation are not supported by research Divorce o Divorce: Impact on Children o Children in step-parent families have higher rates of delinquency, more behavior problems, and lower grades o Divorce o Creates financial hardships. o Transitions create upheaval lasting several years. o Parenting patterns shifts away from authoritative. Understanding Results from Psychological Research o Divorce may reduce financial and emotional resources available to a child o Any transition involves upheaval o Authoritative parenting likely diminishes during upheaval o Extended family networks mitigate impact When divorce is unavoidable: o Keep changes to minimum. o Consider placing the child with his or her same-gender parent. o Engage the custodial parent to help children stay in touch with the noncustodial parent. o Keep open conflict to minimum. o Avoid using the child as either a go-between or an emotional support system for his or her parents. Aggression o Instrumental o Intended to obtain something a child wants or damage something o Hostile o Used to hurt another person or to gain advantage o Increasing verbal skills leads to verbal over physical aggression o Physical aggression declines as dominance hierarchies emerge o Dominance hierarchies – arrangements of children into pecking order of leaders and followers. Aggression Theories o Aggression-frustration hypothesis o -frustration doesn’t always lead to aggression but frustration makes aggression more likely o Declines with increasing communication skills o Reinforcement o “If I hit her I get the toy” o “If I throw a tantrum in the store, I get the cookie” o Modeling hypothesis (Bandura) o Kids learn specific forms of aggression by seeing others do it (eg hitting) o Real-life aggression is more influential than media - but media matters! o Trait aggression (genetic base) o Aggressive behavior becomes a way of life o May have genetic basis o Associated with aggressive environment such as abusive families o Other family factors: lack of affection, use of coercive discipline o Social Cognitive Theory: Aggressive children lag behind in understanding other children’s intentions o Behavior can improve with training o helping kids understand intentions of others (it was an accident) o Anger management techniques Peer Relationships: o Why does aggression change during preschool years? Race and Preschool Children o Early judgments reflect ego thinking and cognitive immaturity, not true racism. o Judgment of others related to race schemas- they view others who are similar to themselves in some way as desirable. o Understanding of cultural racial stereotypes and prejudices slowly acquired by age 5 o May affect self-esteem of minority children o They should be encouraged to view their race positively Preventing racism o 5 TIPS: THE PRESCHOOL YEARS o Be honest. o Don’t encourage children not to “see” color or tell children we are all the same. Rather, discuss differences openly and highlight diversity by choosing picture books, toys, games and videos that feature diverse characters in positive, non- stereotypical roles. o Embrace curiosity. o Be careful not to ignore or discourage your youngster’s questions about differences among people, even if the questions make you uncomfortable. Not being open to such questions sends the message that difference is negative. o Broaden choices. o Be careful not to promote stereotypical gender roles, suggesting that there are certain games, sports or activities that only girls can do or only boys can do. o Foster pride. o Talk to your child about your family heritage to encourage self-knowledge and a positive self- concept. o Lead by example. o Widen your circle of friends and acquaintances to include people from different backgrounds, cultures and experiences. Gender Development o Psychoanalytic Explanations o Identification with same sex parent o Social-Learning Explanations o Linked to gender-related behavior o Becomes motivated to exhibit same-sex behaviors o Parents shape sex role behaviors and attitudes o This explanation is probably insufficient because parents don’t reinforce gender-based behaviors enough Cognitive- development o Gender understanding develops in stages: o Gender identity (2-3y) o Child’s ability to label his or her own sex correctly o Gender stability (4y) o Understanding that you are the same gender throughout life o Gender constancy (5 or 6y) o Recognition that someone stays the same gender even though appearances may change with clothing Information-Processing Approach o Gender schema theory: development of gender schema underlies gender development and occurs with recognition of gender differences o Child learns this categorization early “either/or” of male or female by age 2 or 3 o Fits new information into this schema o Child learns gender scripts o Fixing dinner or fixing cars o Learns likes and dislikes of own gender o More subtle and complex by age 6 o At 6 the gender rules are pretty rigid o Later they are more flexible Biological Approaches o Developmentalists used to dismiss the idea that gender differences had a biological basis o More recently animal studies have shown the prenatal effect of testosterone on post-natal behavior o Boys with ambiguous genitalia feel like boys – prenatal effect of testosterone? o Conclusion: hormones play some role in gender development How each gender ought to behave o Age 4 o Okay for boy to play with doll o Age 6 o Wrong for boy to play with doll o Age 9 o Not “wrong” but not what boys usually do o Gender “rules” now understood as social conventions, not moral issues Sex-Typed Behavior o Sex-type behavior: o Develops earlier than ideas about gender o 18 – 24 months – children prefer sex-stereotyped toys o Age 3 – children prefer same-sex friends o Learned from older same-sex children o Learned differently by gender o Girls use an enabling style o Supporting a friend, expressing agreement, making suggestions o Boys use a constricting or restrictive style o Derails inappropriate interactions, bringing them to an end Prosocial Behavior and Friendships o Pro-social behavior: behavior intended to help another person o Development of prosocial behavior evident at age 2-3y o Some of these behaviors increase with age: o Taking turns o Donating to a needy child o Helpfulness o Comforting another child is more common during the preschool years than later on o Children who show altruistic behaviors are popular with peers Parental influences on pro-social behavior o Parental influences affect children’s empathy. o Loving and warm family climate o Combined with clear expectations and rules o Stating rules positively rather than negatively makes a big difference o “We like to share our toys” o Providing prosocial attributions – positive statements about the underlying cause for altruistic behavior o “You’re such a good helper” o Such statements help children incorporate these concepts into their self image. o Parents of altruistic children find opportunities for them to help, and these parents model thoughtful and generous behavior Prosocial Behavior and Friendships o Friendships o 18 months: some toddlers express friendships o 3 years: 20% of preschoolers have stable playmate o 4 Years: 30% of time spend with another child o Early friendships become more stable with time, but are still primitive by adult standards. o Early friendships related to social competence Peer relationships - Kinds of Play o Successful play is associated with the development of social skills. o Successful play associated with development of social skills o So how do kids play? o Solitary play- playing alone. Occurs at every age. o Onlooker play – watching another child play. Babies show interest as early as 6 mos age. o Parallel play – starts around 14 mos; play side-by-side , express interest in one another, gaze at one another, make noises at one another o Associative play – 18 mos; pursuing their own activities but occasionally interacting in short bursts; for example briefly imitating another child’s activity o Cooperative play – age 3 or 4 years; several children work together to reach a goal- constructive or symbolic Peer Relationships: Group Entry and Play o Children who are skilled in-group entry spend time observing others to find out what they’re doing and then try to become part of it. o Poor group entry skills o Lead to aggressive behaviors o Increase rejection by peers o 3-year-old girls with poor group entry skills engage in more parallel play than cooperative play, and vice versa. o 3-year-old boys with poor group entry skills tend to be aggressive and rejected. Rejection leads to more aggression and disruptive behavior – a cycle develops o Both girls and boys with poor group entry skills are at risk for social problems later. o Social skills training may help – e.g. teaching kids specific phrases to use when they want to join a group. o “Can I play?” o And teaching the rest of the kids to respond to the request Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood (Chapter 9) PHYSICAL CHANGES (6-12yo) • Grow 2-3” and add 6Lbs a year • ↑ large-muscle coordination ↑strength and speed • ↑ significant fine motor control and better hand-eye coordination writing, drawing, cutting, musical instruments, etc • Girls: o Attain 94% of adult height by age 12 o Faster in overall growth rate o Slightly more fat and less muscle tissue o Better coordination • Boys: o Attain 84% of adult height by age 12 o Boys faster and stronger BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM • New synapses, ↑thickness of the cerebral cortex 2 major growth spurts: • 6-8 yo: o Increases in the sensory and motor cortex improvements in hand–eye coordination & fine motor skills • 10-12 yo: o Frontal lobes and cerebral cortex add synapses gains in logic and planning • Continued myelination of the frontal lobes, reticular formation, and the nerves that link the reticular formation to the frontal lobes o 6 to 12 year olds develop selective attention § Ability to focus cognitive activity on the important elements of a problem or situation • Myelination of associational area neurons o -Sensory, motor, and intellectual functions are linked o -Contributes to increases in information-processing speed improvement in memory function • Spatial perception lateralization o Helps with activities such as map reading o Improves learning math concepts and problem solving • Spatial cognition o Ability to infer rules from and make predictions about movements of objects in space § Includes left–right orientation § Affected by visual experiences Health and Wellness • Most school-aged children are very healthy; however, they continue to benefit from regular medical care. • Leading causes of unintentional injury death: o 2000-2005 USA – MVA (5-9yo 53%, 10-14yo 58%) • other injuries • Car crashes o 55% of child passenger injuries are 4-8yo o In a car crash, a child under 4'9" tall who is buckled only in a seatbelt is at risk of: § Flying forward toward front seat or windshield § Slipping out from under the loose seat belt • Seatbelt syndrome - head, neck, and spinal injuries o Booster seat vs. seat belt § injury 59% § protection against head injury 4X o Law: booster seats until 4'9"; 8 yo; 80 Lbs • Bicycle accidents o ¼ of all cases of traumatic brain injury (TBI), an injury to the head that results in diminished brain functions such as loss of consciousness, confusion, or drowsiness, among school-aged children. o Most children who experience TBI recover fully. o Bicyclist death statistics from New York City § 92% crashed with motor vehicles § 89% occurred at or near intersections § 74% TBI § 97% who died not wearing a helmet o Laws requiring that children wear helmets when bicycling had been passed. o Research: ↓death rates due to bicycle accidents 50% or more among children o How to Fit a Bicycle Helmet Snug, Level, Stable § Adjust straps: eye-ear-mouth § Adjust the fit pads or ring • Children aged 5-14: boys had a much higher death rate than girls • Asthma o Chronic lung disease that causes airways to become sore and swollen o fatal attacks of breathing difficulty o Typically appears around 5 – 7 yo. o Causes: Allergens, irritants, weather, exercise, infections o Managements: Identify and avoid irritants that trigger attacks, Daily medication o Consequences: Most frequent cause of school absence • Excessive Weight Gain o Excessive weight gain: pattern in which children gain more weight in a year than is appropriate for their height, age, and sex o 1 in 5 children o Most serious long-term health risk o Excess body fat has adverse effect on health o Associated with adult obesity o Requires special diets and increased exercise to lose weight PREVALENCE OF OBESITY AMONG 6-11 yo IN THE U.S. (BMI>95%) • Weight Management (CDC) o vegetables, fruits, and whole-grain products o low-fat or nonfat milk, daily products o lean meats, poultry, fish, lentils, and beans o serve reasonably sized portions o whole family to drink plenty of water o limit sugar-sweetened beverages o limit consumption of sugar and saturated fat o limit children’s TV, video games, computer time • whole family in physical activities- walking and bicycling COGNITIVE CHANGES: Language • During the school-aged years, children • Increase vocabulary, esp derived words (words that have a basic root to which some prefix or suffix is added: unwanted, happily) • Increase of 5,000–10,000 words per year! • Improved grammar skills and pronunciation. • Use different tenses to describe past experiences. • Engage in conversation with many ages. Piaget’s Concrete Operational Stage • Concrete Operational Stage: able to think logically about concrete concepts, but have difficulty understanding abstract or hypothetical concepts • School-aged children: o Understand rules that govern physical reality. o Distinguish between appearance and reality. o Utilize a set of powerful schemas. • Schemes that enable children to think logicall o Inductive logic - own experience general principle. o Class inclusion: subordinate classes are included in larger, superordinate classes o Conservation: logically determine certain quantity remains same despite adjustment of container, shape, or apparent size o Decentration –multiple variations into accounts. o Reversibility - mentally undo some kind of physical or mental transformation. Horizontal décalage • Piaget: it takes children some years to apply new cognitive skills to all kinds of problems. • Ex) Development of conservation • Mass (7 yo), weight (8 yo), volume (9 yo) • Horizontal décalage: o once a child learns a certain function, he or she does not have the capability to immediately apply the learned function to all problems. • Concepts and schemas develop through operation on and manipulation of objects in a specific manner DIRECT TESTS OF PIAGET’S VIEW • Siegler: balancing task: Concrete Operations as Rules for Problem Solving o Cognitive development consists of acquiring a set of basic rules applied to broader ranges of problems. o Movement from one rule to the next requires experience. • No stages, only sequences. SIEGLER’S BALANCE TASK • Rule 1: preoperational rule - number. • Rule 2: transitional rule – number, distance. • Rule 3: concrete operational rule –distance, weight. • Rule 4: understanding the actual formula for calculating the combined effect of weight and distance for each side of the balance—formal operations thinking. Advances in Information Processing Skills: Processing Efficiency • Able to remember longer and longer lists of numbers, letters, or words. • Processing efficiency: Ability to make efficient use of short-term memory capacity • Increases steadily with age. • Major component of cognitive growth • Increases speed of cognitive processing • Virtually identical patterns of speed increases in studies in Korea as well as the United States. Advances in Information Processing Skills : Automaticity • Automaticity: the ability to recall information from long-term memory without using short-term memory capacity • Frees up short-term memory space for more complex processing o 6 + (7x7) = ? • Achieved primarily through practice • Automatized basic math facts learn complex computational skills more rapidly. Advances in Information Processing Skills: Memory strategies • Memory strategies: techniques for remembering information. o Rehearsal o Organization o Elaboration o Mnemonics o Systematic searching • Appears in 6-12yo • Metacognition and executive processing skills help children to develop memory strategies. o Metacognition: knowing about knowing. o Executive processes: planning what to do and considering alternative strategies based on a basic understanding of how the mind works. ADVANCES IN INFORMATION PROCESSING SKILLS: Expertise • Expertise: the amount of information possessed improves information processing • Categorize information in complex and hierarchical ways • Remember and logically organize new information on the topic • r/t capacity for creativity • Ex) Expert chess players SCHOOLING: Overview • Every society seeks ways of teaching children skills needed in adulthood. • In U.S., formal education is one of most important influence on cognitive development in middle childhood. • Main focus of education in middle childhood: ability to read and write Schooling: Literacy • Literacy: Ability to read and write • Effective beginning reading program -systematic and explicit phonics instruction. o Systematic: simple one-letter/one-sound correspondences two or more letters. o Explicit phonological awareness: letter-sound correspondences are taught intentionally. Daily practice develop automaticity • Balanced approach to reading instruction • Beginning readers: automaticity • learn about meaningful word parts • more efficient leaders, better understand what they read • Comprehension strategies: helps child to identify the purpose of a particular text. • Exposed to good literature: own reading, being read to by teachers and parents SCHOOLING • Poor readers o Have problems with sound-letter combinations o Benefit from highly specific phonics approaches that translating letters into sounds and vise versa o Some don’t improve with phonics approaches programs that combine sound-letter and comprehension training is highly successful in helping poor readers catch up, especially implemented in early elementary years SECOND-LANGUAGE LEARNERS • Limited English proficient (LEP): o Limited ability to read, write, speak, or understand English • English language learners (ELL): o Limited English proficiency prevents full participation in regular education classes. o ELL students in public school: o 2002–03 (8.7 percent, 4.1 million) o 2012–13 (9.2 percent, 4.4 million) • Programs and Services Provided to ELL o ESL: 76% ELL o part of the day in classes to learn English. • Bilingual education o instruction given in two languages. o Using a home-component helps. o encourage parents to learn English o support children’s home language and culture o Eventual transition to English-only classroom is necessary. ACHIEVEMENT AND INTELLIGENCE TESTS o Standardized tests: individual performance is determined by comparing a student’s score to an average score obtained from a large sample of similar individuals. o Kinds of Tests o Achievement tests o Assess specific information learned in school o Critics: very similar to IQ test, better indicator -portfolios of children’s school work. o Paper and pencil intelligence tests o Required by most U.S. school districts o Misclassification of minority students o Strongly r/t achievement test scores IQ TESTING IN THE SCHOOLS o No o IQ tests do not measure all facets of relevant functioning. o IQ scores may create self-fulfilling prophecy. o Tests are often biased. § Culturally reduced tests/culture-fair tests o Yes/Maybe o IQ testing aids in qualification for special classes. o IQ tests are more reliable than teacher’s subjective rating. Howard Gardner: A theory of multiple intelligences: o Eight types of intelligence; Intuitively appealing, but the theory has little empirical support. o Linguistics: language o Logical-mathematical: numbers, logic, problem solving o Musical: music o Spatial: art and paintings o Bodily kinesthetic: move in a coordinated way o Naturalist: plants and animals in natural world o Interpersonal: sensitivity to moods, behaviors, and needs of others o Intrapersonal: ability to understand oneself Daniel Goleman: Emotional Intelligence o Emotional intelligence has three components o awareness of one’s own emotions o the ability to express one’s emotions appropriately o capacity to channel emotions into the pursuit of worthwhile goals o Children’s control over emotions in early childhood strongly related to academic achievement SCHOOLING Group Differences in Achievement o Sex Differences o No consistent differences between boys and girls on total IQ or achievement test scores. o Girls: slightly better on verbal tasks. o Boys: slightly better on numerical reasoning. o Differences are shaped by environmental factors. o Parent and teacher assumptions about skills § Children internalize the beliefs of others. o By high school, differences in standardized math tests are apparent. SCHOOLING Cross-Cultural Differences in Achievement o Math & science: U.S. children < other industrialized nation children. o Underlying cognitive processes are similar. o Differences may be related to variations in cultural beliefs and teaching methods. o Parents o North Americans innate ability o Asians hard work SCHOOLING Group Differences in Achievement: Ethnic differences o Problems associated with economic status; access to prenatal care; family stability o Learning style differences o Higher percentage Asian-American and European-American children are analytic o Analytic: Define learning goals and follow orderly steps to reach them o More African-American, Hispanic, and Native American children are relational o Relational: Focus attention on the “big picture” instead of individual bits of information o Lack of good cultural fit may cause school problems Teachers and teaching methods vary. o Asian teachers: emphasize “master lessons” around a single theme, lessons are organized around a single theme and involve specific forms of student participation, computational fluency, developed particularly effective modes of teaching math and sciences. o American teachers: may undermine intrinsic motivation by poor use of reward systems, spend less time on one topic, often shifting from one concept to the next within the same lesson. CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS: o 13% U.S. children: special education. o 38% learning disabilities: difficulty in mastering a specific academic skill, most often reading, despite possessing nthmal intelligence and no physicastor sensory handicaps o Ex) 4 gr, an average IQ , reading at 1 gr level o Dyslexia: o skill deficit specific to reading that may include difficulty understanding the sound and structure of language o Reciprocal teaching: working in pairs or groups o Inclusion: at least part of school day in regular classroom o Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) o ADHD: o Neurobiological disorder characterized by developmentally inappropriate impulsivity, inattention, and, in some cases, hyperactivity o Causes: unknown o Neurological difference: serotonin function is impaired, require more sensory stimulation than peers o Management § Parent training § Help regain a sense of control o Receive daily feedback from school o Reinforce specific rules o Stimulant medications HOMESCHOOLING o 2.4% of U.S. children are homeschooled. o 21% special learning needs o 16% mental or physical challenges. o Homeschooled children score in the top 20% across all academic subjects o Research reveals more about who homeschools than on the effects of homeschooling. Child Abuse and Neglect o Child Abuse: Physical or psychological injury resulting from adult’s intentional exposure of child to potentially harmful stimuli, sexual acts, or neglect o Typically precipitated by everyday interactions between parent and child. o 2005: 3.3 million referrals to CPS o 899,000 were abuse and neglect o 2005: 12/1,000 in 1-18 yo were victims o 10% of emergency room visits An ecological model of abuse o Child: age, disability, difficult temperament o Parent: substance abuse, depression, mental illness, poor coping ability, limited intelligence, impulsivity, poor anger control, history of maltreatment, lacking in parenting skills and knowledge, history of abuse themselves, live-in male partners whose children are not theirs o Family: domestic violence, poverty, single parent, multiple children, stress, lack of health insurance, inadequate food, lack of support o Community: poverty, crime, violence, substance abuse, social isolation, lack of supports o Sociocultural: Personal or cultural values that regard physical abuse as morally acceptable, cultural traditions that view children as property, communities that support these beliefs Life Course perspective The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study Cultural competence Prevention A pyramid of abuse
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