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Chemistry 2 week one notes

by: Ariel Kamen

Chemistry 2 week one notes chem 132

Marketplace > Towson University > Chemistry > chem 132 > Chemistry 2 week one notes
Ariel Kamen
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These are the notes from class that we discussed this week.
general chemistry lecture 2
Sarah T. Stokes
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ariel Kamen on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to chem 132 at Towson University taught by Sarah T. Stokes in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see general chemistry lecture 2 in Chemistry at Towson University.


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Date Created: 02/04/16
1/28/16                                        Chemistry 2 Notes • Lewis dot structure and VSEPR review   formula —> L.D.S —> geometry VSEPR —> polarity —> IMFs —> properties Intermolecular Forces: between 2+ molecules  Surface tension Viscosity Volatility M.P. B.P. Vapor Pressure Solability    properties (bulk)         Intramolecular Forces: within a molecule (*covalent & ionic bonds) 1. Count valence electrons (e­) 2. Least electronegative goes into the center (NOT….. H & F) 3. Make single bonds 4. Place remaining e­ around outer atom 5. Make double or triple bonds if necessary 6. Check! Octets, number of e­, resonance, etc. Lewis Dot Structure Exceptions to octet rule:              Incomplete octet: H, B, Li, Be, Al              Expanded octet: row 3 and below! P, S, Cl, Br, I, As, Se….. 2/2/16                     What Determines the Shape of a Molecule? • simply put electron pairs, whether they be bonding or non­bonding, repel each other • by assuming the electron pairs are placed as far as possible from each other, we can predict  the shape of the molecule Electron Domains • we can refer to the electron pairs as electron domains • in a double or triple bond, all electrons shared between those 2 atoms e­ domains                           electron geometry                         molecular geometry         2                                        linear                 —————­>    linear                3                                     trigonal planar ———————­>  trigonal planar (3 b.p.)                                                                                                        bent (2 b.p., 1 l.p.)                   4                                    tetrahedral —————————­> tetrahedral (4 b.p.)                                                                                                      trigonal pyramidal (3 b.p., 1 l.p.)                                                                                                      bent (2 b.p., 2 l.p.)         5                                    trigonal bipyramidal —————> trigonal bipyramidal (5 b.p.)                                                                                                    seesaw (4 b.p., 1 l.p.)                                                                                                    T­shaped (3 b.p., 2 l.p.)                                                                                                    linear (2 b.p., 1 l.p.)         6                                       octahedral ————————­> octahedral (6 b.p.)                                                                                                     square pyramidal (5 b.p., 1 l.p.)                                                                                                     square planar (4 b.p., 2 l.p.) Electron­Domain Geometries ­ central atomhe electron­domain geometries for two through six electron domains around a  Molecular Geometries • the electron­domain geometry is often NOT the shape of the molecule, however • the molecular geometry is that defined by the positions of only the atoms in the molecules,  not the non­bonding pairs Linear Electron Domain • In this domain, there is only one molecular geometry:  linear. • NOTE:  If there are only two atoms in the molecule, the molecule will be linear no matter  what the electron domain is. Trigonal Planar •  there are 2 molecular geometries     ­trigonal planar, if all the electron domain    ­bent, if one of the domains is a non­bonding pair Tetrahedral •  there are 3 molecular geometries     ­tetrahedral, if all are bonding pairs    ­trigonal pyramidal if one is a nonbonding pairs     ­bent if there are two nonbonding pairs Trigonal Bipyramidal •  there are 2 distinct positions in this geometry     ­ axial ( north and south pole)    ­ equatorial (equator) —> this is where lone pairs will be • lower­energy conformations result from having nonbonding electron pairs in equatorial,  rather than axial, positions in this geometry • there are four distinct molecular geometries in this domain: – Trigonal bipyramidal – Seesaw – T­shaped – Linear Octahedral • all positions are equivalent in the octahedral domain. • there are three molecular geometries: – Octahedral – Square pyramidal – Square planar Practice:  Polar Covalent Bonds: •  although atoms often from compounds by sharing electrons, the electrons are not always  shared equally •  Flourine pulls harder on the electrons it shares with hydrogen than hydrogen does  •  therefore, the Flourine end of the molecule has more electron density than the hydrogen  end Polarity •  but just because a molecule possesses polar bonds does not mean that molecule as a whole will be polar •  CO2 is nonpolar because the ‘ends’ balance each other out  •  water is polar because oxygen pulls electrons to itself and because the shape of the molecule puts this electron rich area (red) at one ‘end’ of the molecule (unbalanced)  IM   s intra —> within molecule (covalent bonds) inter—> between molecules (10x less strong than covalent bonds) Pure Substances weakest 1. Dispersion­ london dispersion forces (LDF) or van der woods forces  *found in all molecules •  temporary dipole­ temp. force that happens when electrons in 2 adjacent atoms occupy  positions •  bigger atoms/more atoms —> more e­; more dispersed •    polarizability­  how will can an  atom or molecule change itself to  “look” polar 2. Dipole­dipole  (d­d) 2/4/16     **SKIP 12.4                                 12.5 Four types of crystals: ALL SOLIDS Ionic­ ionic bonding, brittle, hard high melting point does not conduct heat or electricity Molecular­ covalent bonds, within a molecule, IMF’s between molecules  low m.p. and b.p. soft does not conduct heat/electricity Covalent­ all covalent bonds hard high m.p. does not conduct heat/electricity Metallic­ metallic bonds soft to hard low to high conduct heat/electricity


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