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PSY 310; Week 3 Notes

by: Brianna

PSY 310; Week 3 Notes PSY 310

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Notes from Chapter 4 and Lecture (1/28-2/4)
Basic Counseling Skills
Class Notes
Psychology, counseling skills
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brianna on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 310 at Colorado State University taught by Richards in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Basic Counseling Skills in Psychlogy at Colorado State University.

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Date Created: 02/04/16
Reading (Ch 4) Invitational Skills ● Nonverbal Skills ○ 70­80% of communication is nonverbal ○ Three Functions ■ Regulation ■ indication of pauses and stopping  points ■ Intimacy ■ enhances intimacy ■ Persuasion ■ inviting nonverbal skills encourage  the client to open up ○ Body Language ■ Eye Contact ■ most important ■ shows confidence and involvement ■ pay attention to differences in  cultural backgrounds ■ ex; eye contact is  considered rude in some Asian cultures ■ Body Positioning ■ lean torso slightly forward with  "open" posture (no crossed legs/arms) ■ shows involvement and relaxes  client ■ Attentive Silence ■ gives client time to reflect and gives  helper time to process ■ may make client feel unsupported if  used too early or too often ■ not to be used with clients who are  dealing with a lot of anxiety or anger, or have a psychotic disorder ■ Voice Tone ■ use voice to mirror client's emotion ■ emphasis on words to show that the  client's feelings are being understood ■ ex; "You were very  sad" vs "You were very sad" ■ Facial Expressions and Gestures ■ attend to and consider what  messages are being portrayed through client's facial expressions ■ consider cultural differences ■ head nodding for encouragement ■ Physical Distance ■ very important to consider cultural  differences ■ 3­5 feet is comfortable distance ■ close quarters can create anxiety ■ physical barriers (desks) can add  feeling of formality ■ Touching ■ shaking hands shows willingness to  connect ■ depends greatly on situation and  client ■ Guidelines ■ touch should be  appropriate in the situation ■ touch shouldn't be  more intimate than the client is comfortable with ■ touch shouldn't  convey a negative message ● Opening Skills ○ Encouragers; words used to help the client feel comfortable  confiding ■ Door Openers (Probes) ■ positive, nonjudgmental invitation to  talk ■ initiated by helper, client decides  depth of response ■ Used to... ■ get clients to expand ■ begin conversation ■ give helper time to  find a response ■ ex; "Tell me about it." "You look  down this morning. Do you want to talk about it?" "Can you say  more about that?" ■ Minimal Encouragers ■ brief supportive statements ■ show understanding and attention ■ ex; "I see." "Right." "I hear you."  "Hmm." ○ Questions ■ most abused opening skill ■ excessive use reduces ability to listen and may  make client feel interrogated ■ may train clients to answer  questions instead of expressing themselves ■ "Why" Questions ■ not very effective ■ Assumes.. ■ client knows why ■ knowing why is  helpful ■ with experience, helper can extract  motivations without asking "why" ■ Leading Questions ■ not very effective ■ attempt to push the helper's agenda  onto the client ■ shuts down conversation ■ Open and Closed Questions ■ closed; asks for specific information ■ elicits short response ■ sometimes necessary but if used often, may affect the relationship negatively ■ open; allow for freedom of  expression ■ elicits longer  response with more information Lecture (1/28 ­ 2/4) Invitational Skills ● Nonverbal Communication ○ provide clarification ○ express emotion ○ Posture/Positioning ■ natural, relaxed, attentive ■ where client sits can be important ○ Touch ■ varying degrees of comfort ○ Eye Contact ■ appropriate balance ○ Facial Expressions ■ match verbal information ○ Eliminate Distracting Behaviors ■ pay more attention ○ Silence ■ can be very helpful ■ avoid natural tendency to fill silences ● Behaviors to Observe ○ eye behavior ■ tears ○ facial expressions and head movements ○ body positioning and full body movements ○ Goal: look for meaningful patterns ○ How to respond if verbal doesn't match nonverbal? ■ react to words ■ react to nonverbal ■ comment on double (mixed) messages ● Verbal Communication ○ Important to: ■ ask questions to clarify understanding ■ confirm understanding ○ Verbal Tone & Rate of Speech ■ can use to deescalate a situation ○ Don't Offer Solutions too Quickly ○ Stay on Topic ○ Appropriate Amount of Talking by Interviewer ■ interviewer is passenger, client is driver ○ Appropriate use of Encouragement ○ Focus on What is Being Said ■ okay to ask for clarification ○ Types of Inquiry ■ Minimal Encouragers ■ head nods ■ "uh huh", "yes", etc ■ not "okay" ■ Probes ■ "Tell me more..." ■ repeat few words from client's  previous statements ■ clarify feelings ■ client's may have  different understanding ■ Open­Ended Questions ■ avoid "why" questions ■ Be Careful With: ■ "can you..." and "will  you..." ■ "how are you?" ■ good starting points for interviews ■ Closed­Ended Questions ■ can serve appropriate purpose ■ don't overuse ■ Good for: ■ enriching and  elaborating client's story ■ brings out specifics o  the client's world ■ critical for  assessment ■ can help clients  search for positives ■ first word may determine what client  says next ■ Problems with Questions ■ bombardment/grilling ■ multiple questions ■ cultural differences ■ takes all control from client


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