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First Week History Notes

by: Katlyn Burkitt

First Week History Notes History 146

Marketplace > Towson University > History > History 146 > First Week History Notes
Katlyn Burkitt
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Hello! This covers the readings and lectures that we have had this week. Of course it is only one persons notes however these may be a good supplement for your own :)
History of the United States after the Civil War
L. Mims
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katlyn Burkitt on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 146 at Towson University taught by L. Mims in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 97 views. For similar materials see History of the United States after the Civil War in History at Towson University.


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Date Created: 02/04/16
1-28-16 Don’t take notes on a laptop article Notes (typed) Study done by: Pam Mueller and Daniel Oppenheimer The Test Group 1: Written Group 2: Typed  They had a stronger understanding of the  Took more notes than the hand written material group  They were able to synthesize the  The notes were nearly verbatim to the information better lecture  However they had a lower retention rate of the lecture These results did not change when the participants were tested one week after lecture vs. within an hour of the lecture. Why these results?  Writing by hand forces you to summarize and process the information  Seeing your own handwriting can act as a memory cue reminding you of context and content  Technology does not always foster learning (More isn’t always better) 1-28-16 Why Study History? Notes (Typed)  What is History? o History = collective memory o History is possibilities, probabilities, and complete surprises together o History is an informed guess.  What isn’t history? o History is not an eternal unchanging truth o History is not an exact prediction of future evens  What do we need to know of history? o Patterns o Turning Points o Current governing Institutions took shape 100/1000 Years ago o Collective memory and personal memory change over time for the same reasons  What does history/memory do? o History makes us wiser (public) and more human (personal) o Personal memory makes us human o Collective memory makes us social  Why is collective memory (History) important? o Without collective memory we do not have our best guide for public action with outsiders o Democratic citizenship (ex. U.S.) needs collective memory  What are the three levels of general history? o Family/local history  usually oral  primary school o National history  where political power is high school/college o Global history  increased communication means increased importance of foreign encounters  Why study history? o Human action is never the same twice( Lightning) BUT can be similar o Studying vanished ideas puts our ideas into a different perspective o Reading things similar to our own experiences creates shared humanity o Studying alien religions creates a broader sense of humanity 2-2-16 Chapter 8 Lytle Notes  How did slave owners describe the Northerners or Yankee to slaves? o “Got long horns on their heads, and tushes *pointed teeth+ in their mouths, and eyes sticking out like a cow? (pg. 171)”  Why would slaves stay with their masters? o Fear of the unknown o A sense of loyalty (similar to Stockholm’s)  How was the reaction? o The first most general reactions among ex-slaves was fear, this was soon followed by joy, particularly at finding their masters as prisoners they were to guard.  Ex. “bottom rail top dis time. (pg. 173)”  What does the term “bottom rail” Mean? o Well to be put simply the bottom rail is the lowest and during these times slaves occupied the lowest position in society, essentially next to cattle.  Why is it difficult to tell the stories of the slaves? o Through the white perspective  Slaves often lied to their owners  Ex. Page 175. Slave Squires Jackson was caught reading by his master and turned the paper upside down and essentially played dumb to full his master  Slave owners typically thought they were doing the work of god or doing the “heathens” a service by enslaving them because “a negro cannot take care of themselves”  Primary examples found on page 184 in the interview with Susan Hamlin and the white interviewer presumably from the welfare office. o Through the black perspective  They were denied the right to be taught to read and write throughout slave years  Depending on who was conducting the interview their answers would change  They tended to rely on whites even after abolition due to their still not so good social standing and answered questions in such ways that would not offend the whites  If they were alive to tell the tale after many had learned to read or write they were likely to have been very young during slavery and their memories then were distorted.  Bias after abolition could still be seen o Blacks were denied property o Blacks were denied voting rights o Blacks were segregated from whites o Blacks still essentially subordinate to whites by being forced to address them as Ma’am or Mister  Important organization: Federal Writers Bureau (FWB) 2-2-16 Chapter 16 Schultz Notes  Reconstruction o The federal governments methods to solve problems from the war  Why was reconstruction difficult? o 1. The difficulty of integrating rebel states back into the union o 2. The social questions about how to integrate 4mil ex slaves  How did things changed after the civil war? o Laws supporting internal improvements, outlawing slaver, etc. Were passed post-civil war o Females who were ex slaves were removed from field work o Black churches multiplied in number  Ku Klux Klan (KKK) o A false military force formed to resist the integration of blacks and preserve white supremacy  Freedmen’s Bureau o A government agency designed to create a new social order  Created to go against the KKK  Provided  Food  Medical Care  Education  And access to the justice system  Ten % Plan (1863) o A plan by Lincoln that allowed amnesty to any southerner who claimed loyalty to the union and the emancipation of slaves  Only 10% of the state’s voters were needed for the state to re-enter the union and form a local government  Wade-Davis Bill o Similar to the 10% plan except 50% of the population needed to take the oath to return to the union  Iron Clad Oath o An oath to testify that you had never voluntarily aided or abetted the rebellion  This had to be taken in order to vote or serve in constitutional conventions  Johnson’s plan for reconstruction o 1. Scrapping the “40-acres and a mule” plan from the Freedmen’s Bureau o 2. Creating a difficult oath that southerners could take to receive pardon  Unless they appealed directly to Johnson  Black Codes o Similar to slave codes designed to govern the behavior of freedmen and women  Radical Republicans o A political party particularly against slavery o They had a lot of power  They used their power to  1. Expand the role of the Freedmen’s Bureau  To pass the civil rights act  Civil rights act o The bill that granted all citizens mandatory rights.  Designed to counteract the black codes  Congressional Reconstruction th o When radical republicans held more power than the president and passed the 14 and 15 amendment, and the military reconstruction act th  14 amendment o The extension of the Bill of Rights to all people born in America o Gave former slaves and their children the right to due process th  15 amendment o Allowed any MAN to vote  Military reconstruction Act o All former rebel states (except Tennessee) were turned into military districts o A commander controlled the state government o Soldiers enforced the law  Carpetbagger o A Northern born white that moved to the south post-civil war o Symbolized corruption and lowliness o To show that these whites were trying to capitalize on the misfortunes of the southerners  Scalawag o A southern born member of the Republican party o Typically had been poor farmers  Success of southern republicans o 1. They constructed the first public school system in the south o 2. They developed antidiscrimination measures o 3. They strengthened the rights and privileges of agricultural workers o 4. Began internal improvements, Ex. Railroad systems  Convict leasing o The leasing of prisoners to private companies and landowners to make up for lost slave work o Blacks were targeted o Blacks in prisons sky rocketed  Why did reconstructions collapse o 1. An increasing lack of interest in the plight of the black population o 2. Southern resistance to reconstruction  The Civil Rights Act (1875) o Racial discrimination in public areas was forbidden o Was not very effective  Civil Rights Cases (1863) o Stated that everything besides discrimination in juries was unconstitutional  The Panic of 1873 o Financial crisis o Northern attention became focused on the crisis not civil rights  Mississippi Plan ( 1875) o A plan that called for as much necessary violence that was necessary to put Mississippi back in control by the Democracy  Redeemers o The southern democrats that used violence to gain political and social control  The compromise of 1877 o A compromise in which republicans promised not to dispute the democratic gubernatorial victories and withdrawal federal troops o In return they had to accept Hayes’ presidential victory and respect the rights of black citizens History 146 Lecture Notes 2-2-16  Key points ( General) o There is no bias free history (Evidence in McNeil and Lytle) o Historiography: The study of the history of history (Because it is always changing)  Key points to take from McNeil o An understanding of “Critically Constructed Collective Memory” (C M) o The ability to answer if there is or has ever been a list of people and events we must study in history o History is generally about informed guesses  What should you be looking for in an article? o Who is the narrator o What is the argument o Identify the different layers of bias  Questions for next class o 1. What is the Economy of deception o 2. How does Historiography play a role here?  Hint this is shown by a particular school of historians (Dunning School) Lecture Notes 2-4-16  Question One. o “The elements of racism grounded in mistrust, creating a kind of economy of deception, in which slaves could survive only if they remained conscious of the need to adapt their feelings to the situation (pg. 193, Lytle).”  This was interpreted as the system through which slaves protected themselves within the oppression. As demonstrated by the fictional portrayal of Squires Jackson (pg. 175, Lytle).  Question 2. o The Dunning school of thought “’ As the full meaning of *emancipation+ was grasped by the freedmen, ‘ Dunning wrote, ‘Great numbers of them abandoned their old homes, and regardless of crops to be cultivated, stock to be cared for, or food to be provided gave themselves up to testing their freedom. They wandered aimless but happy through the country. “  This was interpreted as the freedmen were unable to handle the responsibilities given to them when they were granted freedom.  Key terms to know from this lecture o The economy of deception (Be able to fully explain and understand) o The Freedmen’s bureau (Discussed on page 196, Lytle; and page 276 Shultz) o The first reconstruction (1865-1877) o The second Reconstruction( 1950’s/60’s)  The civil rights movement th o The 13 amendment o The 14 amendment th o The 15 amendment  And their impacts o Sharecroppers and how that contributed to the economy of deception and further discrimination on freedmen o Redemption: The mythical idea created by white democrats put forward to describe regaining control of the Southern Government  “The south will rise again” o The compromise of 1877 and its affects  Important things to keep in mind and private study o Congressional Reconstruction o The failure of Freedom and Jim Crow laws or Black Codes  Possible essay topics o The successes and failures of reconstruction


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