Vertebrate Biology Week 3 Notes
Vertebrate Biology Week 3 Notes BZ 214
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kenzie Busick on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BZ 214 at Colorado State University taught by Shane Kanatous in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Animal Biology- Vertebrates in Biology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 02/04/16
Vertebrates Week 3 02/04/2016 ▯ Jaw types based on attachment Autostyli- mandibular arch not supported by the hyomandibula, but suspended from the skull (not a very firm attachment) o Found in Placoderms (step before teeth- first appearance of jaws), Depnoi (lungfish), and Tetrapods other than mammals Amphistyli- jaw attached to braincase via two articulations; o A ligament connecting palatoquadrate to skull, and mandibular arch supported in part by hyomandibula o Most sarcoterygii, many chondrichthyes (sharks) and some osterichthyes (bony fish) Hyostyli- mandibular arch attached to braincase via the hyomandibula o Modern bony fish o New dermal bone; the symplectic, may aid in jaw suspension Metautostyli- jaw attached to the braincase directly through the quadrate ( a bone formed in the posterior part of the palatoquadrate) o Most amphibians, reptiles, and birds o Hyomandibular not involved in jaw suspension; instead gives rise to the columnella, which is involved in hearing o Other elements of the 2 and 3 arches contribute to the hyoid apparatus that supports the tongue and floor of the mouth Craniostyly- entire upper jaw is incorporated into the braincase, lower jaw articulates with the squamosal bone o Most modern animals ▯ Origin of fins (paired appendages) In a fluid environment (water or air) there are three directions of control o Pitch- is head up or down (tail and pelvic/pectoral fins) o Yaw- is head right or left (dorsal and anal fins) o Roll- is rotation around the longitudinal axis (regulated by dorsal fin) Fins provide a means of control. By pushing against the water with its fins, a fish can control it motion in these three directions Fins allow precise control and gives the fish the ability to orient its jaws relative to a food source or other object to be manipulated by the jaws Physical Characteristics of water Covers 73% of the Earth’s surface: freshwater represents less than . 01% of the water Comparison of water and air o Much less oxygen dissolved in water than there is in air o Diffusion rate lower in water than air (diffusion is based on moving from higher concentration to lower concentration) o Water is 800 denser than air Viscosity- water 18-20 times more viscous than air (harder to move something more viscous, but more energy to move in something more viscous) o Heat conductivity is 24 times faster in water than air o Harder to maintain body temp in water (heat conductivity is 24 times faster) o Takes more energy to move on land because you employ more muscles to keep your skeleton upright, in contrast animals that live in water-> the water supports their body o Percent of oxygen used to ventilate- fish: 25% and rabbit: 1- 2% o The most efficient respiratory structure was gills because they are good at extracting oxygen from a low oxygen environment o The driving force behind respiration is diffusion-> move oxygen to an area of higher concentration to the body which is lower concentration ▯ Properties of respiratory environments Oxygen content of water (inverse relationship) o The higher the water temperature -> the lower the oxygen content and vice versa o How much salt water can hold is directly related to temperature (directly related) Ex- easier to dissolve sugar in hot coffe than cold coffee ▯ Advantages to living in water Fairly stable temperature environment (takes a lot to heat/cool) o Marine doesn’t change more than 1-2 degrees for an entire year o Fresh water lakes can change more in terms of water temp Body support ▯ Gills and respiration The structure where gas exchange takes place is the gills o Water is pumped across the gills via a buccal pump o As you increase the need for more oxygen -> increase the surface area o Coming off the gill arch are numerous gill filaments Gill filaments are divided into secondary lamellae o Ram ventilation – swim through the water with mouth open, so use the movement of the body to flow water over the gills Used by active cartilaginous and bony fish o Each gill arch has two arteries that branch into each gill filament- the afferent artery and the efferent artery (carrying oxygenated blood to the body) o Counter current exchange- allows you to have the maximum length in which exchange can take place The key to gill functioning and efficiency o Blood travels from heart-> gills-> rest of the body Some fish can use swim bladders or lining of the mouth to extract oxygen in addition to gills o All respiratory surfaces have two key traits Thin (can diffuse faster) and moist (traps gases and allows for diffusion) ▯ ▯
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