Hist 1020 Nationalism and New Imperialism Notes Feb2-4
Hist 1020 Nationalism and New Imperialism Notes Feb2-4 World history II
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Nationalism and “New” Imperialism 1 N ATIONALISM AND THE U NIFICATION OF G ERMANY FEB 2. 2016 Study Questions I. What resulted from the Frankfurt Assembly? II. Describe details of the Prussian Constitution of 1850. III. What caused and resulted from the Austro-Prussian War? IV. What caused and resulted from the Franco-Prussian War? I. Study Question 1 (I): What resulted from the Frankfurt Assembly? A. Nationalism a. Nationalism: i. Two definitions: ii. 1. Having loyalty to one’s country (requires a country to be loyal to). iii. 2. Nationalism can mean having feelings of common national identity that can come from shared language, common shared traditions/cultural symbols (flags, holidays, etc.), shared past/history/memories. b. German nationalism i. Led to creation of independent Germany JAN 18 1871!!! ii. Contributed to outbreak of WWI 1914-1918 iii. Contributed to outbreak of WWII iv. Contributed to Nazi holocaust v. Germany came out of states and populations from central Europe vi. States that comprised central Europe before Germany 1. Prussia and Habsburg Monarchy are the largest and most powerful states 2. Habsburg Monarchy or Austro-Hungary (1867 renames to this): capitol at Vienna (capitol modern Austria). Very complex in ethnic composition; very multicultural and this made it very complicated with much ethnic rivalry inside its state (Germans dominated and official language, also Czechs, Slovaks, Poles, Magyars (Hungarians), and Italians, etc.) so different competing loyalties. 3. Prussia: capitol at Berlin which was capitol of independent Germany. The population and the other 37 were largely universal and homogenous in composition that was mainly German and German speakers. More inclined to make a united Germany. 4. Total of 37 other central European states before Germany around 1850. This was a region of intense political fragmentation around 1850. B. Unified Germany a. 1848 (the year of the communist manifesto). i. Many revolutions broke out in 1848; a year of revolution in Europe. ii. Growing out of this was the Frankfurt Assembly. II. Study Question 1 (I): What resulted from the Frankfurt Assembly? A. Frankfurt assembly a. Began to meet May 1848 until May 1849. i. Composed of mainly middle class men (bourgeoisies) ii. Goal: make a constitution for unified Germany which didn’t exist yet. 1. They hope by making a constitution it would magically bring the state into being. iii. April 1849 finished constitution 1. Called for unified Germany 2. Only for Germans (no other ethnicities) 3. Habsburg monarchy was not included because it’s too messy. 4. Prussia and other 37 other German states were included only. 5. German nationalism at play here. 6. A state led by constitutional monarchy: created by Frankfurt assembly. This is a government in which a monarch shares power with a parliament made up of elected representative (a form of mixed government). a. Most men over 25 were to have the right to vote b. No universal adult or male suffrage c. All but poor men could vote because they don’t have the Reason or rational capacity to make good decisions in law making. d. Limited male suffrage e. Gave power to king and government but the King was given a lot of power; given the power to dissolve the parliament to get rid of parliament and rule alone. 7. They didn’t know how to bring the constitution into effect. 8. Best way to get constitution implemented was to go to kin fog Prussia and if he accepts it, he would have power over that and the 37 states. 9. Frederick William IV of Prussia was asked to accept it and he said no to the offer from the Frankfurt Assembly. He “won’t accept a crown from the gutter.” He wouldn’t accept it because the reps of the assembly that brought him the constitution was the middle class and these people were “the gutter” aka bourgeoisies. He would only accept leadership from other members of the aristocracy. 10.All of the work of the Frankfurt Assembly was a loss. 11.1840-1861 Frederick was King of Prussia. 12.1848 was a scary year for the leaders of Europe because of the revolutions. He made political changes in order to have political stability in Prussia to maintain power. a. Part of this: 1850 he wrote his new constitution for Prussia. III. Study Question 2 (II): Describe details of the Prussian Constitution of 1850. A. Prussian constitution of 1850 a. Frederick’s Prussian constitution of 1850 i. Prussian constitution of 1850 called for constitutional monarchy ii. The parliament was called the Prussian Diet. 1. These were elected by universal male suffrage (all men could vote) 2. A catch the universal male suffrage: this was structured by the three class franchise system of voting. a. According to term of the constitution, the electorate were broken down into three classes divided by wealth of the votes. b. At the top were the wealthiest men (5% of voting population) c. In the middle were the second most wealthy men in Prussia who weren’t super rich but weren’t wealthy enough to pay taxes (12.6% of voting population). d. The largest group were the poor men who couldn’t pay taxes (82.7% of voting male population). e. When it came down to vote in parliament, each curia (group) got a vote so the system did give all men the right to vote but the weight of the vote was set up so the wealthiest group choice would win. f. This left tremendous power in the hand of the king (decided when parliament met, when new elections were held and if the King wanted them or not.) iii. King had the power to appoint and remove all ministers of state (aka secretaries of state). These secretaries are called ministers which were advisors of the monarch. iv. There is shared power but what the king says goes v. The Minister-President was the minister who led the rest and also led the Prussian Diet to make sure everyone is doing what they’re supposed to do for the king; kept everyone in line and kept king happy, essentially. vi. German unification was not in the Prussian Constitution of 1850 but many Germans were hungry for it. b. Otto von Bismarck i. Lived from 1815-1898 ii. Leader of German unification iii. Member of the Junker class or aristocracy. iv. He wanted a unified Germany; very strong German state in mind v. He didn’t want a unified Germany of all of the states; he wanted only Prussia and the 37 states; he did not want Habsburg. He wanted as pure German ethnics as possible. vi. In 1862 he was given an important job as Minister-President over the Prussian Diet; appointed by William I of Prussia (king from 1861-1890). vii. After being made Minister-President, he had ideas on how to make unified Germany happen viii. September of 1862 he gave a speech on German unification that would take iron and blood. He would use war to unify Germany. He was willing to spill blood and went about deliberating causing outbreaks of war for German unification. ix. 2 main wars to unify Germany: 1. Began 1866 which was the Austro-Prussian war or Seven Weeks War. IV. Study Question 3 (III): What caused and resulted from the Austro-Prussian War? A. Austro-Prussian War or Seven Weeks War a. Started deliberately by Otto Bismarck i. Mismanaged affairs in Schleswig-Holstein intentionally ii. Bismarck accused Hapsburg monarchy of mismanaging affairs with Schleswig-Holstein. they were very insulted and were threatened by thought of Prussia taking over S-H. The Habsburg mobilized for war against Prussia. iii. June 15, 1866 the war started and was over in July (7 weeks). Ended so quickly because the Habsburg army was so out of date unlike Prussian army. This was very sad and humiliating for the Austrians. iv. They undertook reforms to modernize started which led to Austria-Hungary. b. Peace terms i. Habsburg could no longer be involved with any affairs with central European states including Prussia and 37 small states. ii. Bismarck and Prussia could take over the states with no Habsburg involvement. iii. End of 1867, Prussian had defeated 21 of the states so far and these were all in the northern stretch of central Europe (thanks to Bismarck’s modernized army). iv. He organized these states into the North-German Confederation (Prussia and 21 states in north central Europe). This was the first stage of German unification because he used war. This had King of Prussia as king of NGC. 1. Same laws as before v. Still another 16 states that needed to be brought in. Bismarck looked for another war and found it: Franco-Prussian War. V. Study Question 4 (IV): What caused and resulted from the Franco-Prussian War? A. Franco-Prussian War a. September 1868, seeds of war were planted in Spain. Spain at this time there was a coup d’état. i. Coup d’état: overthrow of government. b. A temporary government was established in Spain to figure out a future permanent government. They wanted another king on the thrown. They decided they wanted a person of the Hohenzollern Royal Family which was the royal family of Prussia. i. France didn’t want them on the throne of Spain. There were many tensions between France and Prussia. ii. This would also mean France would be surrounded by Prussian enemies. iii. July 13, 1870, France sent a French ambassador to Prussia to appear before King William I to talk him out of the idea. (Bourbon was the French royal family). iv. When ambassador went to Prussia, he was in a spa town for the healing waters. This town was called Ems. v. Count Vincent Benedetti made his request to William I and then left (very quick conversation). vi. William wrote a telegram, the Ems Telegram. Bismarck saw this and wanted war between Prussia and France. 1. He re-wrote the telegram to insult French national pride. 2. He leaked this to the press and the French government read this fake telegram by Bismarck and this was the last straw for the French government. 3. France delayed war on Prussia. 4. July 15, 1870 the Franco-Prussian war happened c. Franco-Prussian war was over by Jan 1871. i. The moderation of the army paid off and Prussia won ii. This was a relatively quick victory for the Germans. iii. During the fighting, the 17 little states watched the fighting with great interest. The Franco-Prussian war pushed them into joining the NGC. iv. Some of the German states joined not because of national pride but because of fear because if they didn’t voluntarily join, they would have been destroyed. v. January 18, 1871, all 38 German states were unified as one state. vi. The new state was given a new name: German Reich (German Empire). 1. King of Prussia was declared head or Emperor of the Germans. 2. The King was declared German emperor in the Hall of Mirrors in Versailles (Near Paris). a. This was a sacred place for French nationalists. b. This was where the king was crowned king of Germany c. This was deeply humiliating and infuriating for the French. d. This intensified hostility. e. This contributed to outbreak of WWI and WWII 2 “N EW ” I MPERIALISM AND LEOPOLD II IN A FRICA FEB4, 2016 Study Questions I. What was new about “new” imperialism? II. How did the industrial revolution contribute to “new” imperialism? III. Compare Livingstone and Stanley. IV. Discuss Leopold II’s activities in Africa and why they stopped. th I. Imperialism in the 19 century a. Imperialism i. Imperialism: Efforts to build and maintain and empire. ii. An empire is a type of government that rules over a large territory iii. Definition: There is one dominant group of people that rule over subjects group of people in an empire. b. After 1870 i. Big empires were being built; largest is in England “sun never sets on English empire” ii. France built an overseas empire as well as Germany, Italy and even Belgium. iii. Imperialism is older than the industrial revolution. Yet, there is something different with it at this time. 1. What is so different after 1870? There is a “new” imperialism. This began around 1870. II. Study Question 1 (I): What was new about “new” imperialism? a. The differences between old and new imperialism i. First difference: Old imperialism 1. In old imperialism, when Europeans went overseas to build an empire, they tended to stick to islands and coastal regions; they didn’t explore too far inland. 2. There were only a small number of encounters between Europeans and non-Europeans. ii. New Imperialism 1. Expanded well beyond islands and went well into continents (inland) and began travel within these places. 2. Much deeper and wider expansion and building. 3. This allowed larger and stronger empires. 4. New encounters with non-Europeans. iii. Second difference: 1. In old imperialism, European states often simply purchased goods that were brought to them by native traders. 2. The goods in old imperialism were often native products (including slaves). They did not establish factories or mines in these parts of the world they were expanding in. natives were producers of goods. 3. Native governments were left to govern their areas on their own for the most part; they weren’t trying to take over governments in old imperialism. 4. In new imperialism, Europeans started to take over production of goods and started mines and factories on non-European continents. 5. This helped spread industrial revolution as they spread imperial reach around the world. 6. During period of new, Europeans began to take over governments of other parts of the world and began their own governments, police and armies to maintain and build imperial control over foreign lands. 7. There is a shift and spread of euro power during new imperialism. iv. What was going on for Europeans to increase reach around the world? Shift from old to new imperialism. 1. This started due to the industrial revolution. III. Study Question 2(II): How did the industrial revolution contribute to “new” imperialism? a. Industrial Revolution i. Industrial revolution led to the development of greatly improved technology at rapid rates. ii. This led to new structures/technology for manufacturing and use of iron and steel. 1. Iron and steel technology replaced old wood and stone technologies like buildings and bridges. 2. These bridges of iron and steel could withstand more pressure; very useful for empire building. 3. Ships were being built with iron and steel now; much stronger and could carry heavier loads of troops and weapons as well as withstanding rougher waters. iii. Suez Canal 1. This was completed in 1869 2. One reason it began around 1870 is because it’s right after opening of Suez Canal; opened up European expansion at a large rate. 3. This is 100 mi long in Egypt. Cuts through Isthmus of Suez between Mediterranean Sea and Red Sea; it was a solid piece of land. 4. This means ships don’t have to go all the way around Africa anymore to get to the other side. 5. This opened opportunities to easily and readily spread and take over other parts of the world using other new technologies. 6. Engineer behind Suez Canal was Count Ferdinand de Lesseps (born in Versailles). 7. Suez Canal was a French financed project for better trade and empire building opportunities to expand French influence over the world. 8. Great Britain saw advantage and bought a share of it to expand Britain reach. 9. This was made because of industrial revolution technologies. iv. Panama Canal 1. Cuts through isthmus that used to divide North and South America. Prior to this, there were 2 ways to get to Atlantic/Pacific: a. Unload and carry the load to the other side b. Sail around South America 2. Trade and empire builders could now more easily travel to the oceans. 3. Ferdinand did this too 4. Completed 1914 (when WWI began) v. New weapons 1. Made possible due to industrial revolution 2. Much deadlier 3. Made of iron and steal 4. Important weapon: a. Maxim gun: invented by Hiram Maxim who was an American born in Maine of humble origins but he wanted to invent something to make him rich. b. He travelled to Europe in 1881 and went to an exhibition in Paris of new inventions like the lightbulb (new electric gadgets convention) c. While at the exhibition he received a piece of advice: i. “if you want to make a lot of money, invent something that will enable the Europeans to cut each other’s throats with great facility” d. Invented the gun in 1884. e. This could fire 11 bullets per second (first machine gun) f. Maxim did make a lot of money and sold to many European powers. g. The Maxim gun first used was first used in Africa as part of the new imperials of Europe. i. Used fist to put down Matabele Uprising (Zimbabwe) in 1893-94. ii. British were trying to expand empire in South Africa. These people didn’t want land and government to be taken over so they rose up iii. The Matabele lived here for centuries and weren’t letting this happen but it was put down due to having maxim guns at their disposal. Matabele only had shields and spears. iv. One fight there were 50 bits soldiers and 5000 Matabele. Brits won due to maxim guns. h. Europeans did end up turning the gun on one another and made extensive use of the gun in WWI. i. Death toll was very high and this made Maxim a very rich man. vi. European expansion th 1. Very interested in spreading to Africa in early 20 cent. 2. Africa is very large and complex. 3. Africa prior to 19 cent., Europeans knew very little of the continent and had limited contact with Africans. Almost no th knowledge of interior of Africa until late 19 cent. 4. Euros called Africa the Dark Continent because their knowledge was dark and vague. 5. Africans in the interior were largely agricultural in small farming communities; self-sufficient farming to feed themselves, not for money. 6. Africans didn’t have large states in interior; small tribes controlled by tribal elders which lead over the small governments units in interior of Africa. 7. They lacked written language; didn’t lack culture. Passed down knowledge from one generation to another through rich story telling tradition and still do today. Very elaborate types of art using metals. They were not primitive, they were just different from Europeans. 8. Europeans looked down on Africans as inferior. 9. Europeans started to learn of interior of Africa by missionary activities. a. First missionary: Livingstone b. Second: Stanley IV. Study Question 3 (III): Compare Livingstone and Stanley. a. Livingstone and Stanley i. David Livingstone 1. Went to Africa from Great Britain and arrived in 1841 in South Africa and traveled up through rivers into the interior of Africa. 2. Goals strictly humanitarian. 3. Medical assistant to Africans; he was a doctor. 4. Wanted to improve their lives and bring in Christianity. 5. Not interested in trade or profit 6. He gained much respect for wanting to improve their lives and was very friendly 7. He sent regular reports to Britain of what he is discovering and who he is meeting a. Many read of his encounters and this became famous in Europe 8. Many Europeans began to seek him out for many reasons including seeing opportunity to make a lot of money 9. Henry Morton Stanley was the one who finally found Livingstone living very happily in 1871 deep in Africa. 10.Livingstone died shortly after and Africans gave him a huge funeral in respect. ii. Henry Morton Stanley 1. Stanley was very different from Livingstone a. Not interested for humanitarian b. Not concerned with health of the Africans c. Not concerned with missionary activities d. He was interested in growing rich 2. Stanley wanted to find gold, silver, or diamonds. 3. Stanley wasn’t wealthy; he needed financial assistance to pay for explorations to interior of Arica. 4. Leopold II was the financial sugar daddy a. He ruled over Belgium from 1865 to 1909. V. Study Question 4 (IV): Discuss Leopold II’s activities in Africa and why they stopped. A. King Leopold II a. King Leopold II of Belgium i. Great interest in Africa for greed. He is very greedy hoping to grow even richer than he already was. He wanted to exploit resources in Africa. ii. Also a Belgium nationalist. Wanted small Belgium to have an empire overseas to compete against Britain and France. iii. He teams up with Stanley in 1878. iv. They establish the International Congo Association in 1878. 1. this was a private business/enterprise in order to help them make money by trading stocks. 2. This proclaimed in 1878 that all of Africa inland from the coast was a terra nullius (territory without government and claimed by nobody). 3. They ignored the fact that people were living there and had governments that were just different; they still had cultures. 4. This meant, in their minds, that European powers could freely rush into Africa and grab territories. 5. This began a large land grab in Africa. v. Stanley claimed a large part of Africa for Belgium. b. Conflicts between European states i. Europeans didn’t always get along with each other. ii. Quickly there were conflicts for borders; where does one begin and the other territory end. Lots of tensions over the race to grab Africa. iii. Otto von Bismarck watched the conflicts in Africa. He knew that Germany, as a small state, could be easily destabilized iv. Bismarck didn’t want war to break out for any reason especially not in Africa so he made an effort to end the conflicts between Europeans in Africa so he brought together a meeting of European powers called the Berlin Conference. 1. Leaders from various states met in 1885 for the berlin conference. They talked about Africa and how not to go to war with each other. (1885). 2. They were worried about the International Congo Association (ICA) of Leopold II and Stanley. 3. Bismarck talked them into transforming the ICA into the Congo Free State (CFS) which was no longer a private enterprise; a new type of state/government that is an international state. 4. This is to be ruled or governed over many states. 5. He envisioned the European governments would come together and manage the state. This did work out because after this, many lost interest in controlling that part of Africa. 6. France decided to devote energy to where it already controlled. 7. Leopold stayed interested in CFS and by default it was ran by Leopold II and Stanley. v. Leopold went his own way in managing the CFS and used it as an extension of business interests. c. Leopold II and the Congo Free State i. Nobody really cared as long as he stayed away from others lands. Leopold never traveled to the CFS; he sent people who worked for him. ii. He really wanted the Belgium explorers to discover gold, silver, or diamonds. They didn’t find any of this; they found a lot of rubber trees. iii. Initially, he saw no use of the rubber trees to make money. Then he got lucky. 1. 1887, a new invention from the industrial revolution; John Boyd Dunlop invented the pneumatic tire (air filled tire). 2. He made this discovery because at this time things like the bicycles and early cars were being developed at this time and ran better with pneumatic tires. 3. In order to meet growing demand, this led to a boost worldwide for rubber. 4. Whoever controlled rubber trees had an opportunity to make a lot of money. 5. Leopold saw demand for rubber as his best opportunity to make money; a happy coincidence to Leopold, not for the people of Africa. d. Leopold and Demand for Rubber i. The Africans had to the hard work of harvesting the rubber. 1. This required someone to climb the tree, tap the tree, get the rubber then dry the rubber which was done by rubbing it on \the body, let it dry, then peel off body. 2. He wanted a lot of rubber fast. 3. They set up a system of forced labor in CFS. They were given little food and long hours. 4. They were given quotas to fulfill or they were punished brutally by whipping and even cutting hands off, especially children to use them as examples. ii. Sometimes Leopold and Belgium agents, to control pop, used Africans to control Africans to harvest as much rubber as possible leading to lots of tensions between Africans. iii. The Zappo Zaps were a native group who became employees of Belgium agents (warrior tribe) to force harvesting as much rubber as possible. 1. In one case, Belgium agents were very unhappy of a group who didn’t fill the quota so the Kuba Massacre broke out. 2. This was when the Zappos killed them, looted them and burned down the villages of those who didn’t fill quotas. e. First Human Rights Movement (against Leopold) i. Eventually, Leopold was stopped. ii. It wasn’t because he grew a heart. iii. Atrocities stopped in large part by two British journalists: Roger Casement and E.D. Morel. iv. They wrote reports and newspaper articles of what was happening in Congo. v. This was the first human rights deal across the world. vi. Reports from missionaries showed how bad it was and they took many pictures and did much to try and help these people. vii. Casement wrote The Casement Report (1904) and Morel wrote Red Rubber (1906). viii. Word even spread to the United States. 1. Mark Twain (USA) also became involved. 2. Twain wrote a book called King Leopold’s Soliloquy (1905). This raised world awareness of Leopold’s agents in the Congo Free State. 3. 1908 is when under international pressure, Leopold ordered the agents to stop the worst brutality. 4. Belgium did stay though (CFS). ix. In 1908 when worst brutalization stopped, a time period of about 25 years of brutality had gone by. 1. In this time there were about 20 million people born in CFS and of those people, 10 million died due to Belgium brutalization. 2. Leopold stopped this also because by 1908, the industry began to experience competition by other European empires in Latin America and in Asia. (This was another reason why he stopped) .
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