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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelly Wetmore on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 242 at University of Rhode Island taught by Barbara Van Sciver in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 70 views.
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Date Created: 02/04/16
Friday, May 20, y Enzymes 100 seconds for 1 reaction without enzyme 1 second for 1,000,000 reactions with enzyme Most proteins Catalysts speed up reaction rates Specific for reactions they catalyze salivary and amylase • Ex: carbs —————————> sugars Substrate > bonds in substrate are weakened > products Not changed within reaction Recyclable Have an optimum pH and temperature (depends on kind of enzyme) Organic v. Inorganic Organic Carbon Inorganic no carbon • Exceptions: CO2, CO pH Potential hydrogen Concetration of H+ of a solution pH scale 0 > 7 > 14 1 Friday, May 20, y Acids • A substances that yields hydrogen ions in solution • Ex: HCl Found in stomach pH 11.5 increase hydrogen ion concentration solution because they fall apart HCl > H+ + Cl • Ex: H2CO3 > H+ + HCO3 • Only the free hydrogen ions contribute to the acidity Bases • Remove hydrogen ions from solution, thereby decreasing the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution • Ex: NaOH (sodium hydroxide) NaOH > Na+ + OH Salts are formed because of the reaction between acids and bases Human blood pH 7.357.45 Urine pH around 6 Biomolecules Polymerization bonding together of monomers • Condensation reaction monomer in, water out • Hydrolysis water in, monomer out (splitting with water) 2 Friday, May 20, y Carbohydrates Monomer saccharides • CHO • CH2O • C6H12O6 glucose 1:2:1 ratio • Ribose has 5 oxygens… how many carbons? 5… how many hydrogen? 10 Monosaccharides • Glucose • Fructose • Galactose Disaccharides • Sucrose (glucose + fructose) • Lactose (galactose + glucose) Polysaccharide • Glycogen • Starch • Cellulose structural form of carbohydrates in plants Protein Monomers Amino acids 20 amino acids 3 Friday, May 20, y 2 carboxyl groups • H2N • COOH ex: Alanine, tyrosine, glutamate, lysine Formation of a peptide bond by a condensation reaction • Carboxyl group + amino group > peptide bond Fibrous protein Collagen Globular protein Insulin Lipids Oily, waxy Simple Glycerol + 3 fatty acids (triglyceride) Complex 2 fatty acids + something else* Steroids Steroid ring structure Cholesterol important for cell membrane Testosterone male hormone Estrogen female hormone Phospholipids Hydrophilic (polar) head Glycerol backbone Hydrophobic (nonpolar) tails (2 fatty chains) 4 Friday, May 20, y Structures formed by phospholipids in an aqueous environment • Phospholipid bilayer • Micelle 5