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American Civ Since 1865 Lecture notes

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by: Conner Jones

American Civ Since 1865 Lecture notes HY 104

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notes from beginning of class through February 4
American Civilization Since 1865
Bart Elmore
Class Notes
American Civ since 1865 notes




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Conner Jones on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HY 104 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Bart Elmore in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 486 views. For similar materials see American Civilization Since 1865 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 02/04/16
History January 19, 2016 A new birth of freedom, 1865-1867  Robert E. Lee surrenders to Ulysses S. Grant  About 625,000 dead on both sides (North: 365,000 South: 260,000) Early Plans for Reunion (1863-1865)  Lincoln’s 10% Plan (Dec 1863)- southern states can rejoin union such that 10% of the citizen’s pledge oath of loyalty to the US, get property back, have to abolish slavery Political parties  Copperhead democrats- referring to snakes, want war to end just to have peace but couldn’t care less about slavery or terms after war  War democrats- want to finish war and not let south off, do not believe in racial equality  Radical republicans- believe in racial equality  Free Soilers- don’t care about equality, fight slavery to help poorer white farmers Wade Davis bill- over 50% of population must pledge oath of loyalty, confederate officers cannot serve or hold office, make sure there is racial equality th 13 Amendment- outlawed slavery in the US, passed Jan 31, 1865 The Corwin Amendment- proposed 13 amendment, almost passed in 1861 which would have disallowed congress from interfering with states about banning slavery Lincoln’s Assassinated and Presidential Reconstruction under Andrew Johnson (1865-1867)  Andrew Johnson grew up very poor and hated rich southern slave owning elites  He gave amnesty to most southern elites Black Codes- laws passed that restricted black’s freedom and forced them into labor Radical Reconstruction (1866-1867)  Renewed Freedmen’s Bureau in 1866 o established in 1865 by Congress to help former black slaves and poor whites in the South after war  14 Amendment passed June 14 , 1866- no state shall deprive any person of life liberty of property without due process of law. Doesn’t directly give blacks the right to vote, just evens out representation if they chose not to allow them to vote.  Reconstruction Acts of 1867- divide south into military districts (managed my Edwin M Stanton) to make sure blacks can vote and south is following up on 14 amendment.  Tenure of Office Act of 1867- president cannot remove member of cabinet without approval from congress Andrew Johnson impeachment trial in 1868 January 21, 2016 A nation Backslides: Compromise and Redemption Dramatic changes, later cause backlash Andrew Johnson’s Impeachment trial in 1868  House of Representatives votes to impeach him  Senate vote impeach: 35/not impeach: 19 (hangs onto job by one vote) Election of 1868 and Radical reconstruction continues  Ulysses S. Grant chosen as Republican (wins in close election)  Horthio Seymour and Francis P. Blair choses as democrats  15 amendment passed in Feb 1869 o gave colored people the right to vote  Senator Hiram Revels first African American senator in 1870  Senator Blanche K Bruce, first African American senator to serve a full term in 1875  Freedmen’s Bureau Schools created Reconstruction success breeds southern backlash  KKK  Vigilante violence  Colfax Massacre, Colfax Louisiana in 1773 o On Easter Sunday members of White League surrounded courthouse and pointed cannon at courthouse, deaths- white: 3/blacks: 150  Grant implements the Enforcement Acts of 1870 and 1871 o Goes after KKK and White League o Declared unconstitutional in 1875 by congress Radical republicans on decline in 1870s  Thaddeus Stevens dies in 1868 as well as many others radical republicans  Liberal Republicans take rise  Presidential scandals o Whiskey Ring Scandal of 1875  Economy in shambles o Panic of 1873  Civil rights act of 1875 o “all persons within US shall be entitled to the full and equal rights”  Compromise of 1877- o committee decides president due to election of 1876 being too close o Rutherford B Hays wins on 8-7 o Compromise said that if Rutherford Hays could be president we would leave south alone o Also gave them a southern transatlantic railroad route January 26, 2016 Central question: what forces encouraged big business growth during the gilded age? Second industrial revolution fosters a new Gilded Age (1870s-1900) The second industrial revolution  Central pacific and Union Pacific railroads connect to become first US transcontinental railroad (1879-1893) o Creates cities o Creates markets due to easier transport from out west o Consuming goods like steel, coal, lumber, etc.  technological transformation o the telegraph (1861) o telephone invented (1876) Alexander Graham Bell o phonograph (1877) Thomas Edison o light bulb (1879) Thomas Edison o electric power generator (1880s) Thomas Edison  new business organization o Andrew Carnegie- Carnegie Steel Company o Vertical integration- owning some/all stages of production in a company o Horizontal integration- buying out all competitors o John D. Rockefeller- Standard oil (owns 90% of nations oil)  Government aids big businesses o Gave railroad companies land and huge gov’t grants o Lax corporation laws in New Jersey and New York to entice people to move there  Cheap immigrant labor o Take advantage of new immigrants moved out west from gold rush The era of mass-marketed consumer goods arrives  Coca-Cola capitalism o John Pemberton invents Coca-Cola, Atlanta, 1886 January 28, 2016 o Wine laced with cocaine o Banned not because of cocaine, but because of alcohol o The coca cola we know today is the non alcoholic version of Pemberton’s drink o Cocaine gets removed from product in 1903 but coca leaf remains o By 1910 coca cola is number one buyer of sugar (vertically integrated) Beneath the Golden Façade  Dispossessing native Americans of their land (approximately 250,000 Native Americans in the west in 1900) o Battle of Little Bighorn (1876)- Montana territory, realized there was gold there and wanted land back. General Custer and his men killed. US army goes after them with a vengeance forcing them to surrender by 1877 o Congress passed laws to strip Native Americans of land.  Dawes Act- divide up native American land and give them to individual Native American families to farm (some have farms; some just have land taken from them) o Wounded knee Massacre (1890)  Lakota Pine Ridge Reservation S. Dakota. Ghost dance that restored native American power. Troops are sent in and Sitting Bull killed. 146 native Americans slaughtered. Signaled the end of native American wars  Growing wealth inequality o By 1890 the richest 1 percent owned the same income as the whole bottom half Presidential politics in the 1880s  1877- Rutherford B. Hays 1881- James A. Garfield 1881-1885- Chester A. Arthur 1885-1899- Grover Cleveland 1889-1993- Benjamin Harrison o era before charismatic campaigning o closely contested elections throughout this period o 80% voter turnout (today: 55%-57%) o watchwords: political corruption and special interests o clear party platform  republican party platform o high protective tariffs- protects US firms o gold standard- currency backed by gold o pay off civil war debt and veterans pensions- get veterans vote  democrat party platform o low tariff o Laissez-faire government- “let it be” o Popular in the south The populists: Third political party  Roots of Agrarian Problem o Sharecropping- you give me land, in return I give you a share of my crop every year (created debt system and cycle of poverty)  Cotton prices fall significantly due to this  Farmers alliance o Sub treasury plan and gov’t lending programs o Regulate railroads- no more shipping fees o In short, they wanted populism “rule by the people” February 2, 2016  Farmers alliances and women o Women’s right to vote  Formation of the People’s Party and the Omaha Platform of 1892 o Direct election of senators o Public ownership of railroads o Government loans to farmers (sub treasury plan) o Graduated income tax o Soft money policy (more money available)  Election of 1892- populist elect James weaver  Failure to incorporate urban working class agitation o Three or four families lived together in tenant style housing o Many people died due to bad working conditions o Knights of Labor (1869)- skilled and unskilled workers o American Federation of Labor (1886)- skilled laborers (more selective) o Haymarket uprising, Chicago (1886) o Homestead Pennsylvania Strike (1892) o Pullman strike, nationwide (1894) o Northerners don’t want to pay higher prices for agricultural products  Election of 1896- populists (and democrats) elect William Jennings Bryan o Fighting for soft money o William McKinley wins election Birth of Jim crow Segregation  Poll taxes, grandfather clauses (if you have a grandfather who could vote in 1867, you can vote)- strips African Americans of political freedoms  Alabama legal code (1901)- separate schools shall be provided for white and colored children (can only attend school of race)  Plessy v. Ferguson- Homer Plessy gets on white rail car; case goes to Supreme Court. Supreme court rules that segregation is fine such that facilities are separate but equal  Lynchings- public killings  Resistance- WEB DuBois and Booker T Washington February 4, 2016 Imperial ambitions overseas: An American empire emerges 1890-1900  America’s isolationist Past o International context- Berlin conference, divides up colonial America o The Monroe Doctrine (1823)- any intervention by external powers in the politics of the Americas is a potentially hostile act against the US o Steward’s Icebox (1867)- the United States Secretary of State William Henry Seward purchased Alaska from Russia  Impetus for expansion o Gilded age economic expansion and panic of 1893 o Closure of the American frontier  Frederick Jackson turner- writes “Significance of the Frontier in American Society”, says that US is going to become weak once we do not have any more frontier to discover, says we must go oversees o Manifest destiny and the “white man’s burden”  Dwight Moody and the volunteer movement for foreign missions  Created missionary programs to spread Christianity oversees o Alfred Thayer Mahan and Sea Power  Influence of Sea Power upon History (1890) by Alfred Thayer Spanish American War (William McKinley)  Only lasts 4 months  “splendid little war”  admiral George Dewey, US Navy  Teddy Roosevelt and the Rough Riders take San Juan Hill, Cuba, July 1, 1898  Treaty of Paris signed in December 1988 and Platt amendment o Platt amendment makes Cuba do basically what America wants What are the legacies of expansion?  The Insular Cases- deny the Filipinos constitutional rights because they look different than us


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