GY 102 Topic 3 Notes
GY 102 Topic 3 Notes GY 102
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Conner Jones on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GY 102 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Mary Pitts in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Earth System Processes in Geography at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/04/16
Topic 3- Earth Structure and Materials Earth’s dynamic systems Endogenic- internal- radioactive Exogenic- external- solar energy Minerals (5 properties) Natural material Inorganic Solid Ordered internal structure (not random) Specific chemical composition What is a rock? Mass of one mineral (limestone) Assemblage of many minerals (granite) 4 classes of rock o Sedimentary- formed by the deposition of material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water Weathered existing rocks Organic materials (fossils) Exogenic processes- weathering, transportation, deposition Stratigraphy- study of sedimentary rocks (layered) Lithification- cemented, compacted, and hardened o Igneous- formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava Intrusive – crustal rocks, cool slowly, granite (Sierra Nevada Batholith, California) Extrusive – lava onto surface, cool slowly (basalt, Hawaii) o Metamorphic- Rock that was once one form of rock but has changed to another under the influence of heat, pressure, or some other agent without passing through a liquid phase Greek “change form” Harder and more resistant due to heat and pressure Physical and chemical changes may result Two types: contact metamorphism, regional metamorphism o Hydrothermal- rocks whose minerals crystallized from hot water or whose minerals have been altered by hot water passing through them February 4, 2016 What can happen to a rock? (see diagram) o Weathering Physical weathering- fracturing, frost and mineral wedging, roots and other biological activity, thermal expansion Chemical weathering- dissolution, oxidation, biological reactions, hydrolysis o Erosion & transport o Deposition Oldest layer on bottom and youngest layer on top o Burial o Deformation & metamorphism or melting/solidification o Uplift How clastic sediments become sedimentary rocks o Burial/compaction of sand grains o Decrease in amount of pore space between grains o Add natural cements to pore spaces (cementation) o Common cements: carbonate minerals, silicates, iron oxides February 9, 2016 Geologic time- system of chronological measurement that describes timing and relationships between earth and events throughout Earth’s history Relative time- based on other absolute times (after lunch) Absolute time- a worldwide system of time (at 12:30 eastern time) Superimposition- placing newer maps on top of older maps to see clearly the changes that have taken place over time Catastrophism- appearance of earth today is solely based on a series of catastrophic events Uniformitarianism- earth is a result of uniform daily, monthly, yearly processes Punctuated equilibria- evolution of earth is marked by isolated episodes of rapid change with long periods of no change in between Precambrian Eon- 4600 million years, before modern atmosphere Cambrian Eon- since modern atmosphere
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