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Principles of Plant Science

by: Emily Geels

Principles of Plant Science AGPS 1024-001

Emily Geels
Arkansas Tech University
GPA 3.73
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Plant Science Test 2
Principles of plant science
Dr. Collins
Class Notes




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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Geels on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AGPS 1024-001 at Arkansas Tech University taught by Dr. Collins in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Principles of plant science in Agriculture and Forestry at Arkansas Tech University.

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Date Created: 02/04/16
Plant Science 1024: Professor Collins Structures of Horticulture Plants Definitions Shoot­ the part of the plant above ground; stem, leaf, flower, fruit Node­ the area on a stem where the leaf is attached Bud­ inside a node; always on top of the leaf stem Internodes­ space between the nodes Flower­ a specialized stem with leaves adapted to reproductive     functions I. Flowering plants consist of two separate parts: A. Roots­ four main functions: 1. absorption of nutrients 2. anchors the plant 3. translocation of food upward to shoot 4. food storage B. Shoot­ three main functions: 1. photosynthesis manufactures food 2. supports the plant 3. transports xylem and phloem a. xylem b. phloem II. Leaves A. Two parts of a leaf 1. leaf blade 2. leaf stem (petiole) B. Simple leaf 1. one blade per one bud C. Sessile leaf 1. Does not have a petiole D. Compound leaf 1. One bud 2. Many leaflets E. Parts of a leaf blade 1. Margins­ shaped edge 2. Veins­ parallel veins (monocot) netted veins (dicot) 3. Appex­ point of leaf (pointed or blunt) 4. Base of leaf­ pointed of blunt 5. Leaf coverings­ smooth/hairy/waxy 6. Stomates­ respiration pores on the underside of  leaf III. Stems A. The growth of a stem will increase plant height and  width. B. The stem will transport food and water (phloem/ xylem). C. The stem is the site of leaf and flower attachment. D. There are two types of stem: 1. Modified stem a. Tuber b. Turnip  2. Rosette­ leaves appear to come from a single  point a. Grass b. African violet c. Pinapple E. Arrangement of leaves on the stem: 1. Opposite leaf arrangement 2. Staircase arrangement F. Three types of internal stem structures: 1. Xylem 2. Phloem 3. Cambium­ thin layer of rapidly dividing cells   between the xylem and phloem Half of cells become xylem and half become  phloem G. Buds­ miniature leafy or flowering stems 1. Contains immature plant hearts 2. Three types of buds: a. Flower bud (largest type) b. Vegetative bud (produces leaves) c. Mixed bud (can grow to be either flower or  leaf H. Arrangement of buds on a stem 1. Lateral bud (axillaries)­ grow on the side of    the stem 2. Terminal bud­ flower at the end of the stem 3. Adventitious bud­ bud is found in a location   where it is normally not found Plant Science 1024: Professor Collins Structures of Horticulture Plants I. Roots A. Usually attached at ground level B. Usually come out of the crown of the plant (root/stem  junction) C. Most roots will absorb water through root hairs 1. New root hairs are produced daily D. Three main types of roots: 1. Tap root 2. Fibrous root 3. Adventitious root (above ground roots) II. Cells (Botany) A. Structural unit of plants and animals B. Cytology­ the study of cells (structure and function) C. The cell is a universally accepted concept 1. Some plants contain one cell (bacterium) 2. Most contain trillions D. Cells come in different shapes and sizes E. Cells will vary in function 1. Food making (leaf cells) 2. Transport of xylem and phloem 3. Food storage (root cells) 4. Reproduction (flower cells) 5. Support (stem cells) F. There is not a “typical” plant cell G. Two groups of definable cells: 1. Metabolic (growth) 2. Xylem and phloem H. Three main parts of cell 1. Cell wall 2. Nucleus       protoplasm 3. Cytoplasm a. Cell wall - Supports and protects the cell - Varies in thickness based on age and type - Mostly permeable - Produced by cytoplasm - Divided into three layers:  Primary cell wall­ first wall formed o Immature, new growth will only have a primary cell wall  Secondary cell wall o Layed inside primary cell wall o Starts after primary CW stops growing o Contains more lignin (adds rigidity)  Lignin is a complex chemical substance  found in trees  Synthetic vanilla is a product  Film is a lignin product o “pits” add support  Middle lamella o Between primary and secondary walls o Contains pectin (forms a solid gel,  solidifying agent) o Slimy rotten fruit caused by dissolving of middle lamella b. Nucleus - Dense body located within cytoplasm - Contains chromosomes (DNA) - DNA arrangement provides genetic information to  the rest of the cell - RNA will carry information to the rest of the cell c. Cytoplasm - Complex substance made up of proteins, carbons,  and lipids - 70­90% water III. Other Cell Structures A. Plasma membrane B. Plastids 1. Disk shaped structures found in the cytoplasm 2. Classified two ways: a. Leucoplasts­ colorless, found in parts of plant that do not receive light b. Chromoplasts­ contain color, most famous type is the chloroplast (such as chlorophyll) C. Mitochondria 1. Energy unit of the cell D. Vacuole 1. Contains cell sap 2. Squishes everything against the cell wall 3. Lining of vacuole is called tonoplast IV. Tissue (concentrated group of cells) A. Masses of cells that arise due to cell division 1. These will enlarge and differentiate 2. Change into more specialized cells 3. These groups of similar type cells become organized  into a single mass called a tissue (kidney≠ liver) B. Two main classes of tissue: 1. Meristematic tissue a. New growth b. Undifferentiated cells that are still undergoing  growth and division c. Three classifications: - Apical meristem (primary tissue)  Found at tip of growing point of shoots or  roots - Lateral meristem (secondary tissue)  Found on the sides of roots or stems - Intercalary meristem  Found at crown of plant 2. Permanent tissue a. Appears on older plants b. Two types: - Simple tissue  Three types: o Parenchyma  Least specialized  Most abundant  Found in fleshy portion of  fruit/roots/tubers o Collenchyma  Thick cell walls  Elongated cells  Mechanical support  Found in older fruit o Sclerenchyma  Thick primary and secondary cell wall  Nut  Gritty texture in pear - Complex tissue  Made of more than one type of cell  Two types: o Tracheids are found in the xylem o Sieve elements are found in the phloem V. Topiaries are an ancient technique of sheering a bush into a non­typical shape A. English maze B. Mickey mouse ears C. Topiaries began as an attempt to demonstrate man’s  dominance over nature D. Two main ways to make a topiary: 1. Wire frame 2. Sphagnum mold E. Espalier 1. Trained to grow flat against the wall 2. Pyracampuer The video watched in class was called “A Man Named Pearl.” Plant Science 1024: Professor Collins Structures of Horticulture Plants I. Plant tropisms and Nastic Movements A. Movement of a plant in response to environmental  stimuli B. Tropisms­ plant movement in which the direction is  determined by the direction from which the stimulus  originates 1. Phototropism a. Plant bends toward the light 2. Geotropism  a. Growth is influenced by gravity b. Roots always grow down c. Stems always grow up 3. Thigmotropism a. Growth toward object as a result of contact b. Vines on a wall c. Ivy on a tree 4. Sketotropism a. Movement along the ground toward an upright object C. Nastic Movement 1. Movement bears no relationship to direction of  stimulus 2. Photonastic movement a. Responds to light in general 3. Thermonastic movement a. Responds to temperature in general 4. Thigmonastic movement a. Responds to touch in general II. Controlling plant environment A. An imbalance in soil nutrients can lead to plant stress that results in reduced plant growth and lower quality. B. Insufficient nutrients will produce typical plant  deficiency symptoms. C. The productive capacity of a plant is the ability of  the soil to support plant life. D. There are two main ways to determine nutrient problems  in a plant 1. Soil sample a. Box or Ziploc b. Choose 5­6 places c. Dig six inches down d. Combine samples in box or Ziploc e. 12­24 inches down for a subsoil sample f. Take samples to your county agent g. Things to know: - Things previously grown - Crops planning to be grown - Previous liming history - Any unusual problems or conditions (drainage) 2. Foliar (leaf) sample a. Pick 15­20 leaves b. From the middle of the tree - Not new growth or old growth c. Preferable when testing area for trees III. Nutrients A. 17 elements essential to plant growth B. No other element can be substituted for any one of  these 1. Nitrogen (N) 2. Phosphorus (P) 3. Potassium (K) 4. Carbon (C) 5. Hydrogen (H) 6. Oxygen (O) 7. Boron (B) 8. Calcium (Ca) 9. Cobalt (Co) 10. Chlorine (Cl) 11. Copper (Cu) 12. Iron (Fe) 13. Magnesium (Mg) 14. Manganese (Mn) 15. Molybdenum (Mo) poinsettias 16. Sulfur (S) only element capable of changing the  pH 17. Zinc (Zn) C. None is more essential than another, but some are  needed in higher quantities (N vs. Co) D. If a fertilizer contains N P K, it is termed as a  complete fertilizer. E. If a fertilizer lacks N P or K, it is an incomplete  fertilizer. F. Nutrient content or analysis/grade of a fertilizer is  expressed as a set of three numbers (ex. 13­13­13) G. These numbers represent percentage by weight H. Nitrogen in always expressed as elemental Nitrogen.  Phosphorus is expressed and P2O5, and Potassium is  expressed as K2O. 1. To convert P2O5 to elemental phosphorus multiply by  0.43. 2. To convert K2O to elemental potassium multiply by  0.83. I. A super phosphate fertilizer (0­20­0) encourages root  growth (starter solution) IV. Fertilizer Ratio A. 13­13­13 for example, is the fertilizer analysis B. When the analysis is divided by the greatest common  denominator the result is the fertilizer ratio. 1. Examples: 13­13­13= 1­1­1   10­20­30= 1­2­3


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