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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by JoAnne Maloney on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARTD*108 at Coastal Carolina University taught by Jeffery Case in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Survey of Graphic Design in Art at Coastal Carolina University.
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Date Created: 02/04/16
Ch. 2 - Alphabets JoAnne Maloney Phaistos Disk c 2000 BCE - Minoan civilization - created with stamp like objects so symbols would always stay the same - ﬁrst examples of movable 2-2 type - helps to speed up communication - still unknown what symbols are Ras Shamra Script - 1500 BCE - a true Semitic alphabetical script - Venetian’s brought in all languages - created northern nomadic speech 2-3 - reduces cuneiform to 32 characters - represents elementary consonant sounds - wedge used to create symbols - no characters to signify vowels The Hebrew Script - 1924 BCE - changed from original arabic alphabet - better form and structure - squared with bold letters - horizontal strokes are thicker than vertical - 22 consonantal letters - 4 to indicate long vowels 2-5 - 5 have a second form for use at the end of a word - as language evolved dots and dashes were added to indicate vowels Early Greek, Homer’ s Odyssey 400 BCE - 700 BCE, Greeks changed 5 consonants to vowe2-10 from Venetian alphabet - 400 BCE, Homer’s Odyssey - start of stories being written, documentation, and creation of Athen’s - Order was created to characters - symmetrical form and even visual rhythm - Greeks writing progressed from writing right to left, then zig zagged right to left, left to right and then ﬁnally left to right with a left alignment Uncials - came from 'uncia' or a Roman inch in height. - rounded in approach - writing could happen quickly and clearly - After Alexander the Great’s death, his generals took over kingdoms in turn spreading Greek - allowed an A to be made with two strokes instead of three, and an E to be made with three 2-12 strokes instead of four - written on manuscripts, wood and soft materials such as wax tablets and clay T rajan Column 144 CE 2-17 -serifs created from mason workers chiseling into stone - could have been from their paint strokes on stone before chiseling - or how they wanted to end letters to prevent cracking - letters were precise and controlled - This column also included pictographs - letterforms of majestic proportion and harmonious form Capitalis quadrata - from a manuscript, Vergil, c 400 CE. The ﬂat pen held at an angle produced thick and thin strokes and serifs. Stately proportions and clear legibility. No space between words. Close to todays capital letters. Capitalis rustica- Vergil, c 400 CE. The ﬂat-nibbed pen was held in an almost vertical position, creating a staccato rhythm of thin verticals contrasting with elliptical round and arched diagonal strokes. Could ﬁt more on page. Korean Alphabet -the Hangul alphabet is structured in a matrix to keep all symbols in order - consonants on one side and 2-24 vowels on the other - syllables are made by combining at least one consonant and one vowel - this is a woodblock translation, carved out negative area, leaving symbol behind -read left to right, top to bottom 2-23 Summary • The alphabet went from Crete > Phoenician > early Greek > classical Greek > Latin > Modern English • Alphabets and styles were always changing. • Alphabets traveled by conquering armies, traders, and religious missionaries. • Always trying to simplify and speed up the writing. • Writing on papyrus slowly transformed Western society. • Scribes and Priests lost power to secular and military leaders.
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